Kay-africa, Wikimedia Commons
Animals and insects see the world in unique ways. From fish, to dogs, to birds to shrimp, super-eyesight allows them to thrive in places others can't.
Dung beetles, for example, have internal compasses that are sensitive to the sun, Marie Dacke of Lund University and her colleagues have determined. In a paper published in the latest Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, she and her team explain that solar cues and skylight help guide where the beetles roll their coveted balls of poop.Video: 5 Incredible Insect Superpowers
shmoomeema, Wikimedia Commons
Siberian huskies evolved colorful, almond-shaped eyes to see in low light, desolate northern regions. A quirk of genetics is that an individual dog may have two differently colored eyes. A single eye may also feature two colors. It's known as a "parti" or "split" eye.Photos: Ugliest Dog Contenders
Chameleons can rotate and focus their eyes separately to look at two different objects at the same time, according to the San Diego Zoo. This gives chameleons a full 360-degree view around their body.Photos: Chameleon Colors Act Like a Mood Ring
Ants have vision "superpowers," interactive media designers and artists Chris Woebken and Kenichi Okada believe. Using their ant apparatus, humans can see as ants do by placing microscope antennas on their hands (ants have these on their heads) that transmit a 50-fold magnified view of wherever the person's hand is resting.33 Bizarre New Ant Species Discovered
Imagine if you spent most of the day looking up from below. That is what escolar, a large and mysterious deep-sea fish, do, according to a new study by Eric Warrant of the University of Lund and colleagues. Escolar use this technique to "sit and wait" for prey, hoping something tasty will swim over them.
Tomasz Sienicki, Wikimedia Commons
Shrimps have some of the most complex visual systems in the animal kingdom. Justin Marshall of the University of Queensland and his team found that some shrimp stare down prey before attacking with a movement that is so swift that it actually boils water in front of the shrimp. (The other temperate water surrounding the shrimp prevents it from cooking itself to death!)
Stewart Butterfield, Flickr
Most animals, including humans, have round pupils, but the eyes of goats (toads, octopi and a few others too) tend to be horizontal and rectangular with rounded corners. This broadens the horizon that they see, enabling them to better spot predators.
Pen Waggener, Flickr
Bird eyes, such as those of the eagle seen here, feature oil droplets located in the front, Doekele Stavenga of the University of Groningen and colleagues have discovered. The droplets serve as "microlenses" that help to filter and direct light.On the Hunt for Bald Eagles
The eyes of certain animals, such as raccoons and cats, glow in the dark. Their eyes have a light-reflecting surface, known as the tapetum lucidum, which makes this possible. Depending on the animal, the glow takes on certain colors. Cats tend to have eyes that glow green. Miniature schnauzer eyes will sometimes glow turquoise, according to Colorado State University ophthalmologist Cynthia Powell.
Alexander Vasenin, Wikimedia Commons
Cuttlefish, a type of mollusk, are the transformer visionaries of the animal kingdom. They reshape their entire eyes to adjust to what they see. Humans and many other species, in contrast, usually just reshape their eye lenses to get a better look at something.
Giant squid have the largest eyes in the world, according to the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. At up to 10 inches in diameter, the human head-sized eyes help giant squid to see in deep water. It's believed that they can detect a moving sperm whale from 394 feet away.Giant Squid Photos
Fernando Mafra, Fotopedia
We create a mental map of our surroundings in our brain. As Michael Land of the University of Sussex explains, "To interact with objects in the world we need to know where they are, whether they are in our field of view or outside it. Objects in memory have to move in the brain as we move through the world, otherwise they would be not be in the right place."
“Flying UFO-shaped snakes” sounds like fodder for a late-night horror flick, but some snakes really do sail through the air and look like UFOs in the process, according to new research.
The study, published in the latest Journal of Experimental Biology, helps to explain how such snakes (in the genus Chrysopelea) can remain airborne for up to 100 feet in their Southeast Asia rainforest habitats.
The snakes launch from seemingly any position on a tree, flexing their ribs as they initiate a glide. They then stretch and flatten their bodies from a circle into an arched semi-circle.
“It looks like someone’s version of a UFO,” co-author Jake Socha of Virginia Tech’s College of Engineering, said in a press release.
The snakes launch themselves into air to move around their treetop home and to escape predators. They are mildly venomous, and prefer to take flight rather than fight.
For the study, Socha and his colleagues first watched the snakes in action. From afar, the snakes appear to be slithering midair.
“They look like they are swimming,” he said. “They turn their whole body into one aerodynamic surface.”
To determine what’s going on up close, the researchers used a 3-D printer to produce a rod with the same cross-section as the snake’s body. They then placed it across a tank filled with water that flowed over the snake-shaped bar.
Socha explained that, although water is much denser than air, it was possible for he and his colleagues to precisely recreate the air conditions experienced as the snakes fly. They flowed water over the model at a specific range of speeds. Those speeds ranged from about 8 to 20 inches per second.
Slightly tilting the snake model revealed that, at most angles, the snake’s body generated sufficient lift to account for the impressive gliding. When the rod was flat, however, turbulence created a suction-like force on the snake model, pulling it downward.
“Maybe the snake does hold part of its body flat at some point, using it as a mechanism for control,” Socha said, explaining that twisting the body while airborne could allow the snakes to fine tune the forces on their bodies for precise flight control.
The model, however, does not fully explain how snakes use their long bodies to stay airborne for so long.
“If you make a rough estimate of the lift to drag ratio for the real animal, it appears to do better than what we got from this study,” Socha said. “So even though this shape produced more lift than we were expecting, it doesn’t get us the glide performance that snakes can attain, giving us a hint that there is something in what the animal is doing aerodynamically that is not captured by the cross-sectional shape alone.”
The researchers plan to figure that out next. Once they fully unravel the snake’s technique, they plan to use it to design tiny aerial robots for search and rescue missions, reaching places that larger devices and humans could not otherwise go.
Photo: ©Jake Socha