Sea Urchins Thrive in Acidic Oceans
April 25, 2012 -
Whole Foods, the Texas-based natural foods supermarket, no longer carries fish considered to be unsustainable. The Whole Foods ban includes fish that is either overfished or caught in a harmful way, according to their website. The popular Atlantic Halibut made the list, though the company will still sell Atlantic cod that is caught by hook and line or gillnets. "Stewardship of the ocean is so important to our customers and to us," David Pilat, the global seafood buyer for Whole Foods told the New York Times. "We're not necessarily here to tell fishermen how to fish, but on a species like Atlantic cod, we are out there actively saying, 'For Whole Foods Market to buy your cod, the rating has to be favorable.'" Here's a look at the list of fish that the superstore no longer sells and why.
Octopus Whole Foods uses ratings set by the Blue Ocean Institute, a conservation group, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium in California. The ratings are based on factors including how abundant a species is, how quickly it reproduces and whether the catch method damages its habitat.
Imported Wild Shrimp "At Whole Foods Market, we've been saying that our mission is to sell only wild-caught fish that has been responsibly caught. For a few years now, we've used color-coded sustainability ratings, from green (best choice) to red (avoid), to help you make an informed choice. Now we're putting our mackerel where our mouth is: To support greater abundance in our oceans, we're no longer carrying red-rated wild-caught seafood!" the company wrote on its blog.
Tuna (from specific areas and catch methods rated "red") On their website, Whole Foods says that they stopped selling "species that were extremely depleted in the oceans, such as orange roughy, shark and bluefin tuna" years ago. The company uses the sustainability ratings of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC).
Rockfish According to the Monterey Bay Aquarium, "In recent years, reduced fishing has allowed many rockfish populations to recover from low levels. Gear concerns remain, however -- trawl-caught rockfish should still be avoided."
Swordfish Some of the gear used to fish swordfish "accidentally catches sea turtles, seabirds and sharks," according to the Monterey Bay Aquarium.
Skate Wing Skates are in the overfished category. Most are also caught with bottom trawls, which result in high levels of accidental catch.
Sturgeon According to Monterey Bay Aquarium, "Sturgeon farmed in the U.S. is a good alternative to most wild sturgeon, whose populations have seriously declined due to overfishing for sturgeon eggs (caviar)."
Tautog Also known as black fish, Tautog are considered a "vulnerable" species. They are found close to shore on hard-bottom habitats, occasionally entering brackish water.
Trawl-Caught Atlantic Cod Fishermen often catch cod with bottom trawl, large nets that skim across the seafloor. Trawling, according to the Monterey Bay Aquarium, "damages marine habitats and produces bycatch."
NEWS: Can We Save the Tastiest Fish in the Sea?
Turbot A cousin of Pacific halibut, turbot are a right-eyed flatfish -- as they develop, their left eye migrates across the top of the skull toward the other eye on the right side. Turbot are yellowish or grayish-brown on top and paler on their underside.
NEWS: Oceans’ Fish Could Disappear by 2050
Many ocean species suffer from the increasing acidity of the oceans caused by increased absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, some sea urchins may have an evolutionary trick that allows them to evolve around the difficulties of ocean acidification.
Some purple sea urchins’ DNA contain genes that help young urchins survive in acidic water, according to research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS). Wild populations of the urchins may contain enough genetic diversity to allow them to rapidly evolve resistance to acidic oceans.
The research, conducted at Stanford University, exposed sea urchin larvae to a range of water acidities, including levels thought to match the oceans of 2100. Even in highly acidic waters, the urchins thrived.
“They didn’t suffer because among them were some individuals with the right genes to be able to grow well in those harsh conditions,” said lead author Melissa Pespeni, a former Stanford postdoctoral fellow, in a press release.
Acidic oceans don’t seem to sour urchins reproductive success, which may be a good thing for those who fancy the taste of their reproductive organs, called roe, or uni in Japanese sushi restaurants.
IMAGE: Sea Urchin appetizers (and dessert) with chef Chad White at Sea Rocket Bistro in North Park, San Diego, Calif. (Nelvin C. Cepeda, Corbis)