Readers Understand E-Books Just As Well As Print
John Fedele/Blend Images/Corbis
Contrary to popular belief, reading text on digital devices like tablet computers requires less effort from older adults than reading paper.
All photos: Rob Pegoraro/Discovery
Curious about some of the gadgets that either recently arrived or will soon be lining store shelves -- if not necessarily flying off of them? You might have wanted to attend the Consumer Electronics Association's Line Shows conference in New York City. This two-day gathering and the surround events that make up "CE Week" function as a vastly condensed edition of the sprawling Consumer Electronics Show that the Arlington, Va., trade association runs each January. Here are some of the more interesting things I saw there. (Note that "interesting" is not always a compliment in this business).
Pioneer's AppRadio Even the most digital dashboard looks dumb compared to the average smartphone, but how are you going to get the phone's maps and directions into your car's navigation screen? Pioneer's new, $399 AppRadio aims to close that gap by plugging an iPhone or newer iPod touch into its cable, then running apps off the device on its in-dash screen. Well, some apps: Developers have to revise their software to work with this system. And so far, only four third-party programs work with it: navigation apps from MotionX and Inrix and Web-radio programs from Rdio and Pandora. The AppRadio also includes AM and FM, if you're into that sort of thing.
MakerBot's Thing-O-Matic If you don't like the gadgets on sale in stores, you could always try to make your own. MakerBot's exquisitely named Thing-O-Matic does just that: This computer-controlled machine prints in three dimensions, layering on quick-drying plastic to create small machines, objects and toys. This Brooklyn startup has been selling it in a do-it-yourself form for $1,299 (it estimates 12 hours of work to put it together, assuming you're handy with a soldering gun), but early in June, it began offering full assembled Thing-O-Matics for $2,500.
Barnes & Noble's Nook Plain old e-book readers looked a lot less stylish after the iPad upended the market, but they still beat tablets handily in terms of price and weight. Barnes & Noble's just-updated Nook could be the paperback of this category, selling for $139 and weighing a tossable 7.5 ounces. It only connects by Wi-Fi and uses a 6-inch, gray-scale, battery-saving e-ink screen that has less of a distracting delay when going from one page to the next. But it may need to drop below the psychologically significant $100 barrier to stay competitive in this market.
ETC's Evo 3D A lot of people aren't sold on 3D video on their HDTVs, so naturally the industry is doubling down on the concept by putting it in phones. Sprint recently began selling HTC's Evo 3D for $199.99; this Android phone uses two lenses to take three-dimensional pictures and can display them in 3D on its screen without your having to wear glasses. (LG will soon be joining this market with its Thrill 4G for AT&T.) From gawking at the Evo 3D, I can report that the 3D effect looks realistic -- but I still think I'd trade the second camera lens for a bigger battery.
Toshiba's Thrive Can anybody compete with the iPad in the high-end tablet market? Toshiba will be taking a stab at this difficult category with its Thrive in mid-July. Built around a 10.1-inch touchscreen, it offers a feature absent from most other tablets: a standard-sized SD Card slot, allowing for easy transfer of files from a camera, desktop or laptop. It will also sell for less than Apple's tablet, starting at $429 for a model with 8 gigabytes of storage. But it's substantially heavier than the iPad 2, and the Honeycomb edition of Google's Android operating system that it runs has been criticized as buggy.
Vizio's VIA Tablet HDTV vendor Vizio is taking a different strategy with its VIA tablet. Starting in July, it will sell this 8-inch Android tablet for a lot less than the iPad, starting at $349 for a 4 GB model. Vizio is also holding off on Honeycomb, instead shipping the VIA with the phone-oriented Gingerbread release until that newer version gets a little more stable. It's built one interesting extra into it: an infrared transmitter that, with an included app, lets the tablet serve as a universal remote control.
Westinghouse's 3D TV If nobody's willing to pay much -- or anything extra -- for a 3D HDTV, manufacturers will have to make 3D cheaper. Budget-minded manufacturer Westinghouse Digital will ship its first 3D TV in the fourth quarter of the year, with an estimated list price of $1,199.99. The interesting part of it is what's in focus in the photo: its cheap, light "passive" 3D glasses, which don't require any special circuitry to synchronize with the image on the screen. That just leaves the lack of 3D content to deal with... which is not something that most electronics manufacturers can do anything about.
Celestron's SkyProdigy Telescope Finding the moon with a telescope is easy. The planets and the bright stars take more work. Galaxies? Prepare to spend some time panning the scope clumsily around the sky. Some computer-aided telescopes will put an object in view for you, but you first have to tell the telescope where it is by pointing it at a brighter object. Celestron's SkyProdigy line of telescopes, starting at $699 and going on sale in July, use an internal camera to align themselves in about three minutes, the company says, then let you select objects off a small onscreen menu. Note, however, that the camera won't let you save any photos -- and you'll still be on your own if you want to keep the International Space Station in view.
Scosche's freeKEY Most smart phones and tablets will let you connect a wireless Bluetooth keyboard, but then you have yet another piece of fragile electronics to pack. Scosche's freeKEY looks like what you'd use to pack one of those peripherals; this $59.99 rubberized, waterproof keyboard easily rolls up when you're done. I could not test its typing on my Android phone -- for some weird reason, it only supports Honeycomb, not any phone flavor of Android -- but other reviewers have tested it and found it touch-typing compatible (while noting that cheaper takes on this concept are available).
HP's TouchSmart Desktop computers just aren't that exciting these days, but at least HP's TouchSmart 610 desktop looks different from the rest. This $899.99-and-up, all-in-one model includes a screen on a stand that pivots up and down; with the screen pulled up away from a desk, you can walk up to it and use it by touch. HP has provided a software front-end that allows you to navigate through some common functions with the same sort of simple gestures you'd use on a phone. The browser was a little jerky at resizing text, but the Twitter app made it a easier and a little more fun to wander through the Twitterverse.
When Dr. Matthias Schlesewsky and colleagues sent preliminary results of their new study to one of Germany’s biggest newspapers, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung -- commonly known as the FAZ -- they quickly found themselves being dragged through mud.
“We were immediately attacked in the newspaper on the feuilleton,” said Schlesewsky, a professor in the Department of English and Linguistics at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. The feuilleton is the arts and culture section of the paper, similarly compared to the New Yorker’s “Talk of the Town.”
Their study sought to address a common stigma in Germany -- and perhaps across the world -- regarding one's reading experience when it comes to traditional media printed on paper versus digital media, specifically e-readers and tablets.
“There’s a ubiquitous statement you hear throughout German media or if you talk to people,” said lead author, Dr. Franziska Kretzschmar, also a professor in the Department of English and Linguistics at Johannes Gutenberg University. “It’s that if you read on digital media, your reading is worse, you comprehend less, it’s more difficult and it takes more effort to memorize information. It’s something like a prejudice that people hold against digital media in Germany.”
Schlesewsky, who oversaw the study, said his intentions and results were clear.
“The aim of this study,” he said, “was to show if this” stigma “was either right, or as we found, wrong.”
Conducted in collaboration by researchers from Georg August University Göttingen and the University of Marburg, full findings of the study, published today in PLOS ONE, are sure to spark more controversy, which Schlesewsky says he fully anticipates.
“For all people in the intellectual domain,” the feuilleton “is the first thing they read in the newspaper. And we were attacked on the first page,” he said. “They said we were a slave of the e-book media, that we were paid to run a favorable study and that the study can’t be true.”
To prove their results were no fabrication, researchers brought more scientific gravity to the debate simply by removing subjective emotions from the equation.
“From the area of psycho-neurolinguistics, you can actually see that, sometimes, what people perceive and how they interpret their own behavior, is not what you can measure online while people are performing a linguistic test,” Kretzschmar said. “Even if you claim that you have more trouble reading on one medium versus the other, that might not actually be the objective reality in terms of what’s going on in your brain.”
Kretzschmar and Schlesewsky say that, to the best of their knowledge, no one has really tried to answer this question -- if there’s such a trail between subjective impressions about ease of reading and objective measurements. That alone, they say, makes their study unique.
In two groups of young (between ages of 21 and 34) and old (60 to 77) readers, the researchers measured two parameters to identify the amount of cognitive processing required as each participant read uniform text on a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer.
Using eye-tracking technology, the first parameter measured was time required for visual fixation of text. Secondly, to gauge cognitive effort, the researchers used EEG sensors to measure theta band voltage density in the brain, known to co-vary with memory encoding and retrieval.
“In our field, EEG and eye movements in reading are the two best methods you can use because both have a very high temporal resolution,” said Kretzschmar. “So you’re able to say exactly at which moment in time or at what position in the sentence or word there is some processing disruption.”
Prior to the study, a questionnaire showed that participants of both age brackets overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the other two e-devices as their preferred reading medium. The study results, however, showed no bias. In fact, they told a different tale.
Not only did comprehension accuracy show no difference across the three media for either group, young participants showed comparable text fixation durations and EEG theta activity for all three devices. Perhaps most myth-busting is that the older adults spent less time fixating on text and showed lower brain activity (effort) when using a tablet, as compared to the other devices.
Perhaps the most striking finding, the study states, was “the complete lack of a correspondence between the offline measures collected (comprehension accuracy and subjective ratings) and the online measures of reading effort.”
The bottom line: “Our results thus indicate that negative subjective assessments of readability for e-books and other digital texts are not a reflection of real-time information processing demands.”
“I am totally surprised that so many people argue from an emotional perspective that reading on an e-reader or iPad is more unpleasant than reading a book and then combine this statement that it’s more difficult and complex to read on this new digital media,” said Schlesewsky.
“In the UK, as well in America, people are more open and more interested to see and think about the data,” he added. “In Germany, people don’t think about the data, they think about the consequences based on habit and emotion.”
Kretzschmar says the study could encourage the young and old to go digital.
“Maybe it’s a good thing to also know for the future,” she quipped, “that in 40 years time you can increase you reading speed” by reading on a tablet.