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Researchers can spot penguin colonies thanks to the large poop stains they leave on the ice.
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The effects of global warming are frequently projected decades into the future, but two recent reports -- one from theU.S. Global Change Research Program
and the otherfrom the U.N.
-- put into sharp focus visible consequences of our warming planet. An increase in temperature, extreme weather, loss of ice and rising sea level are just a few of changes we can measure right now. Let's take a look at some of the most concerning trends.BLOG: War Of The Words: Climate Change Or Global Warming?
Glaciers are shrinking worldwide and permafrost is thawing in high-latitude and high-elevation areas, reports this year's Fifth Assessment Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.BLOG: Dire Outlook For Climate Impacts, New Report Says
Only a few extinctions are attributed to climate change, reports the IPCC, but climate change that occurred much more slowly, over millions of years, caused major ecosystem shifts and species extinctions. Land and sea animals are changing their geographic ranges and migratory patterns due to climate change.NEWS: Climate Change: Why Haven't We Done More?
Sea level around the world has increased by about 8 inches since 1880, reports the 2014 National Climate Assessment, which projects a 1 to 4 foot rise by the end of the century.PHOTOS: Craziest Environmental Ideas (That Could Work)
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Excess CO2 is dissolving in the ocean and decreasing the pH of seawater. The ocean is about 30 percent more acidic than it was in pre-industrial times. More acidity in the oceans makes it harder for animals to form calcium carbonate shells and skeletons and erodes coral reefs.11 Health Threats from Climate Change
The probability of a Sandy-like storm deluging New York, New Jersey and other parts of the East Coast has nearly doubled compared to 1950, according to the American Meteorological Society. Even weaker storms will be more damaging now than they were 10 years ago because of rising sea levels. Superstorm Sandy cost the nation $65 billion, according to the 2014 National Climate Assessment, and 2012's Hurricane Isaac cost $2.3 billion.
The global sea level rises along with the temperature for two major reasons. For one, heat causes water to expand, which causes the existing water to take up more space and encroach on the coast. At the same time, ice at the poles and in glaciers melts and increases the amount of water in the oceans.PHOTOS: Melting Glaciers
Across the United States, heavy downpours are on the rise, especially in the Northeast and Midwest. Increases in extreme precipitation are expected for all U.S. regions, reports the 2014 National Climate Assessment.NEWS: Shrinking Greenland Glacier Smashes Speed Record
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The most recent IPCC report states with "very high confidence" that current climate-related extremes like heat waves, droughts, floods, cyclones and wildfires are showing that countries around the world, at all development levels, are significantly unprepared. The American Meteorological Society estimates that approximately 35 percent of the extreme heat in the eastern United States between March and May 2012 resulted from human activities' effects on climate. The AMS warned that deadly heat waves will become four times more likely in the north-central and northeastern United States as the planet continues to warm.NASA: Global Warming Goes On
In the face of rising temperatures, emperor penguins in Antarctica may be forced to find new breeding grounds instead of returning to the same spot to mate year after year, new research finds.
Scientists are tracking this climate-driven march by studying the penguins' poop stains; in satellite images, the birds' dark droppings against a gleaming white backdrop of ice reveal their every move.
Emperor penguins are a philopatric species, meaning they return to the same spot each year to breed. When confronted with rising temperatures and receding ice sheets, however, the penguins may forgo their philopatric nature. [Images: The Emperor Penguins of Antarctica]
Michelle LaRue, a research fellow at the Polar Geospatial Center at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, first noticed that the penguins might be adapting to their changing environment when she came across a new colony about 120 miles (193 kilometers) south of a breeding ground that was abandoned when the ice disappeared.
"I thought, 'Well, maybe they just moved,'" LaRue told Live Science.
She began looking through satellite images and data from other colonies to see if the species was actually traveling around. New satellite-imagery technology makes it easy for researchers to track the penguins because of their easy-to-spot poop stains on the Antarctic ice and snow.
"They are the only species living on the very white ice and they leave a very brown stain — it's pretty obvious," LaRue said.
LaRue and a team of researchers found evidence that part of the Pointe Géologie colony, made famous by the "March of the Penguins" documentary, may have moved to new breeding grounds.
In the 1970s, the ocean temperature around Antarctica climbed, and simultaneously, the colony size reduced by half. At the time, researchers thought the warming temperatures and receding ice had killed off the penguins. But, the new study shows that part of the colony might have moved to different breeding grounds.
Researchers originally thought the next closest colony was more than 930 miles (1,500 km) away. But LaRue and the team found several other colonies within the 930-mile-radius that the members of the Pointe Géologie group could have easily reached.
This is not the first time emperor penguins have shown new behavior that might help protect them from climate change. Scientists have observed emperor penguins climbing cliffs to reach ground still covered with ice that is suitable for breeding.
LaRue said the study is only an observation and more research is needed to confirm that the colonies are shifting. Placing trackers on more penguins and conducting genetic studies of colonies could provide some insight into how much the species is moving, she said.
The findings suggest penguins may be in better shape to survive than previously thought, but the flightless birds and other Antarctic species are still in danger from warmer temperatures.
"The study is not saying climate change isn't happening," LaRue said. "It just means maybe we need to start paying more attention to colony fluctuations."
The new study was presented at the Ideacity conference in Toronto on June 20, and will be published in the journal Ecography.
More From LiveScience:
Image Gallery: Life at the South Pole
Quest for Survival: Incredible Animal Migrations
Charming Chicks: Antarctica's Baby Penguins
This story originally appeared on LiveScience.com.
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