Jon Sullivan, Wikimedia Commons
Fresh, raw red meat was on the menu for early human ancestors.
Bill Ebbesen, Wikimedia Commons
"Ardi" steered clear of abrasive, hard foods, such as nuts, tubers and tough grasses. Instead this ancestor seems to have gone for meat and large amounts of soft fruits from its Eastern Africa home.
was another early East African member of the human family tree that walked upright, but still looked a lot like a chimp. It had "robust jaws and large, thick-enameled molars," according to new research in the journal Biology Letters that helps to explain what it, and other early human-ish species, ate. The diet might have included seasonal consumption of very tough foods, such as dried grasses, in addition to wild-bird eggs, nuts, seeds, tubers, small prey and fruits.
Lilyundfreya, Wikimedia Commons
"Nutcracker Man," also from East Africa, got that nickname due to powerful jaws and huge molars. Nuts were clearly a major part of its diet, along with bugs, fruits and probably whatever else it could sink its big teeth into. There's also evidence that the roots of papyrus, a plant later used to make paper, were on the menu.
Cicero Moraes, Wikimedia Commons
Handy Man, from eastern and southern Africa, was not too proud to eat woody plants, leaves and the guts of hunted animals, teeth suggest.
Christian Guthier, Wikimedia Commons
The large and wide molars of East Africa’s
indicate that this species could do some major chewing, but the jaw -- smaller than that of earlier humans -- would have been a limitation.
John Gurche, Wikimedia Commons
Upright Man, living in parts of Africa and Asia, made stone tools suitable for butchering game of all sizes. There is also speculation that Upright Man had a sweet tooth, gorging on high-energy honey whenever lucky enough to find it. Additionally, this human probably cooked some foods. "Cooking is what makes the human diet 'human,' and the most logical explanation for the advances in brain and body size over our ape ancestors," Richard Wrangham of Harvard University explained. "It's hard to imagine the leap to
without cooking's nutritional benefits."
Tim Evanson, Wikimedia Commons
Butchery tools and bones of animals associated with Heidelberg Man suggest that this human hunted -- among other animals --- hippos, rhinos and megaloceros, one of the largest deer that ever lived. Heidelberg Man lived in Europe, Africa and possibly parts of China.
Ryan Somma, Flickr
Hailing from parts of Europe and Asia, Neanderthals were meat lovers to the max, hunting mammoths, elephants, deer, reindeer, muskox and more. They also included some fruits, nuts and veggies on the side. Food wasn’t always plentiful for early humans, though. "Looking at these fossilized teeth, you can easily see these defects that showed Neanderthals periodically struggled nutritionally," says anthropologist Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg. She determined, however, that the struggles were no worse than those confronted by modern Eskimos, so lack of food probably didn’t do in Neanderthals.
John Gurche and Tim Evanson, Wikimedia Commons
Living on the Island of Flores, Indonesia, gave this "Hobbit" human access to some unusual prey. Animal bones associated with the Hobbits suggest they ate the pygmy elephant Stegodon, giant rats and possibly huge lizards, such as Komodo dragons.
Cooking techniques, sophisticated tools and an educated palate all added to the broad diet of our species. There is some evidence that early
killed -- and ate -- Neanderthals. The idea is perhaps less shocking when one considers that primate meat is still regularly consumed by certain people. Cannibalism has occurred in human history but was usually a last resort during a famine. The bottom line is that, for better and worse, humans and those who came before will eat almost anything.
Vegetarianism proved literally hard to swallow for early humans, according to new research that bolsters evidence our ancestors likely veered from this lifestyle around 2.6 million years ago in favor of eating raw red meat and starch-rich plants.
The study, published in the journal Nature, suggests that meat and tools, and not the later advent of cooking, freed early humans to evolve smaller chewing-related features, such as smaller teeth and smaller, shorter faces. These, in turn, might have paved the evolutionary way for improved speech, thermoregulation and even the development of a bigger brain.
"No one knows for sure why hominins started to eat more meat around 2.6 million years ago, but there is abundant evidence for this behavior, including stone tools and cut marks on bones," lead author Katherine Zink of Harvard University's Department of Human Evolutionary Biology told Discovery News.
"The most common explanation is climate change," she added. "During this period, Africa became more open grassland, with more antelopes and other herbivores."
This early Paleo diet also included zero seafood.
She explained, "The ability to fish appears to have come much later in human evolution. Shellfish consumption also appears to be relatively recent."
The study was prompted, in part, by a paradox that has puzzled researchers for years. By the time of Homo erectus about 2 million years ago, humans had evolved bigger brains, bodies and presumably appetites, but their teeth and gut were smaller than those of earlier ancestors. Zink and co-author Daniel Lieberman suspected that mechanical processing of food, as well as the addition of red meat into the diet, could explain the seeming paradox.
To test this out, the researchers fed adult test subjects samples of goat meat (one of the chewier red meats) and jewel yams, carrots and beetroots (to stand in for the starchy plant storage organs that early humans ate). They measured the muscular effort required for chewing and how well the food was broken up before swallowing.
The scientists found that pounding the plant material with stone tools and eating a diet composed of one-third sliced red meat reduced the need to chew by 17 percent and lowered needed force by 26 percent.
Zink and Lieberman point out that prior archaeological evidence indicates early humans fabricated stone tools by 3.3 million years ago, but did not learn to control fire until around 1 million years ago. Evidence for cooking on a regular basis dates to at least 500,000 years ago, long after evolutionary selection for smaller human teeth began.
Butchery tools and bones of animals associated with Heidelberg Man suggest that this human hunted -- among other animals --- hippos, rhinos and megaloceros, one of the largest deer that ever lived. Tim Evanson, Wikimedia Commons
As for why there was (and still is, among African foragers) dietary emphasis on underground starchy plants, the researchers explained that humans emerged at a time when the environment in Africa was drying and juicy, sweet fruits were less plentiful.
"During this time," Lieberman said, "many of the forests thinned and transitioned into more open grasslands."
He and Zink added that starchy underground plants are much more plentiful in grasslands than the fruit/tree-based foods of most chimpanzees, and possibly also of the last common ancestor of chimps and humans.
Anthropologist David Strait of Washington University in St. Louis told Discovery News that the study inspires many follow-up questions, such as how tooth mechanics affect the processing of meat, tubers, bulbs and corms. Strait also wonders if particular tooth shapes, sizes and configurations are better able to resist being fractured when eating such foods.
Matt Sponheimer, an anthropologist at the University of Colorado at Boulder and director of the Nutritional and Isotopic Ecology Lab, believes the new paper "does a nice job broadening the recent debate about changes in the masticatory morphology (anatomy related to chewing) of Homo erectus by moving beyond the effects of cooking, and by taking a deeper look at mechanical processing -- slicing, pounding, etc. -- of foods."
"That mechanical processing of foods can lead to a net energetic benefit should be intuitively appealing to most people, or at least to people who have spent much time in the kitchen!" Sponheimer added. "I'm more of a microwave guy myself, but as we process foods in my lab and in the field all the time, this is pretty obvious."
So should dieters take their cue from this original paleo diet of red meat and tubers?
The authors caution against the idea that there is an optimal diet now for everyone. Later humans in places like Europe and Asia ate tons of fish, for example, with some living to ripe old ages.