New Rock Forms from Our Trash: Plastiglomerate
Clastic plastiglomerates, like the ones shown here, are loose rocky structures, composed of a combination of basalt, coral, shells, woody debris and sand that have been glued together by melted plastic.
November 21, 2012 --
Artist Claudio Garzón was building a curriculum for a summer art course in Los Angeles when the idea struck. He remembered reading about a soldier in Afghanistan who created action figures out of bottle caps so he tried it himself. Only instead of bottle caps, Garzón used plastic debris gathered from walks along the Los Angeles River. Dubbing his initial sculptures “Plastikobots,” he began teaching art students how to make their own with the intention that they’d learn about ocean conservation at the same time. “When the signs are out there, how could you turn a blind eye?” he said. Here’s a look at Garzón’s steampunk art made from plastic trash.
The L.A. River stretches almost 50 miles from the San Fernando Valley to Long Beach. Claudio Garzón lives several blocks from the river, not far from the area where it meets the Pacific. A net there is supposed to catch ocean-bound debris, but small plastic particles still get through, Garzón said. Nearly every day he walks along the river, documenting the pollution he sees and collecting plastic pieces. “A lot of the people who live by the river have formed organizations to go out there and clean it, but they only go out there once a year,” he said. This photo shows the plastic he collected in a single day.
Garzón dons gloves and carries a bag during his three-mile walks. He cleans the plastic he finds by soaking it for nearly a week in a bleach and hot water solution. “I don’t like bleach, but that’s the only thing that’s going to clean it,” he said. He also started experimenting with a small UV disinfecting system modified from the larger kinds that sterilize surgical instruments. While he allows himself to buy metallic paints, glue, and occasionally some screws for constructing his artwork, Garzón said he won’t buy any plastic pieces. “I have to find it,” he said. And he’s found plenty: butane lighters, pen caps, LEGOs, Easter eggs, broken sand shovels, and doll parts for example.
The name for the sculptures comes from the Spanish word for plastic, which is plastico, but Garzón modified it with a K. With support from colleagues in San Francisco, one of the Plastikobots was first displayed in the main lobby of the EPA building there for about six months. Then Garzón said his colleagues urged him to start making marine animals that would appeal to more people. He decided to run with their suggestion.
Garzón has taught workshops and after-school art programs in Los Angeles public schools. In Watts, his lessons include learning about upcycling, turning trash into something of value, and an introduction to marine biology. “Even though they’re young, they still have a responsibility to do their part,” he said. “But the only way to do that is by having people come and educate them about the problem and what they can do.”
Over the course of a 10-week semester, students at the 109th Street Elementary School in Watts learned about the chemistry of plastic, its persistence in the environment, as well as the impacts it can have on marine life, animals and human health. Garzón also taught them about ocean gyres, enormous rotating currents across the planet that are currently collecting all kinds of waste in a sort of swirling plastic soup.
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Garzón wants to convey a certain vulnerability with the style of his turtle sculptures. “I try to give it a little more emotion within the eyes,” he said. “A lot of people when they buy one of the turtles they say there’s something about the eyes of the sea turtles.”
Garzón co-founded a nonprofit called Save Oceans and Seas, or SOS for short to bring attention to local debris accumulation. In addition, he’s collaborated with several ocean advocacy groups, including Heal the Bay in Santa Monica and the San Francisco-based organization Sea Stewards to support awareness campaigns. “The awareness and attention these pieces have received has been overwhelming,” he said.
During one visit to a local park where families and children like to play, Garzón noticed that Styrofoam plates left behind were getting scattered around by seagulls. So he began to clean them up. Adults in the park stared at him and one woman even asked why he was picking the plates up. “I go, ‘because it’s an eyesore. You don’t want your little grandson coming over here and playing with the plates,’” he said. “I can’t ignore it.”
Recent rain in Los Angeles triggered a warning about high bacteria levels in the river. When he was a child, Garzón didn’t remember hearing about things like that. Now, chemicals go into the water and plastic stuck there starts leaching. In the land of fish tacos and sushi, the impact can end up on the plate. “More than likely your fish has come in contact with this,” he said. “Think about it: How many pieces of plastic are out in our ocean?”
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One time Garzón found what looked on the surface like an empty container of cooking oil. On closer inspection he made an unsettling discovery. “There were actually mussels growing on the inside of that piece of plastic,” he said. “On the outside you had barnacles.”
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During his sculpture process Garzón takes photos showing the menagerie of plastic components that go into each piece. While most who see his completed art respond positively, he admitted that there are some who accuse him of glorifying plastic. “They go, ‘You can’t tell it’s plastic.’ I go, ‘you’ve really, really got to look hard,” he said. Once he starts to point out what is what, the pieces sometimes make more sense to them. “The people who actually get it will go, ‘Oh my God I see a butane lighter there. Is that a bottle cap?’ Yes it is.”
A series of steampunk sharks has helped Garzón discuss challenges facing them in the marine ecosystem, he said. In particular, the sculptures open the door to conversations about pressing issues such as shark finning for soup. “(These sculptures) bring awareness to the atrocities that are happening to this majestic predator,” he said.
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Each sculpture ranges in price from $480 to $680 for the robots and $850 to $1,600 for the steampunk marine animals in the Oceanic Series, Garzón said. But on occasion he has forgone the asking price in the name of a bigger cause. “I’ve donated several sculptures to different organizations and nonprofits I believe strongly that they are doing good work,” he said.
“Each piece is unique. Each piece tells a story,” Garzón said of his steampunk artwork. “There is no blueprint.”
A World War II era breakwater in Long Beach that still exists today prevents waves from coming in and out, Garzón observed. That means debris -- particularly plastic trash -- collects in the water and along the beach. “It’s almost like our own personal Pacific gyre,” he said.
Art can be a form of environmental remediation, Garzón says. His eye-catching sculptures are a way into conversations about plastic pollution, ocean conservation, and the impacts all that waste is having on marine life. “We can’t solve the problems if we don’t have enough of an army of marine biologists,” he said. “We have to teach the next generation and say, hey this is cool, saving the environment is cool, saving the ocean is cool, saving the animals is cool.”
Garzón has an inclusive teaching style, ready to share his enthusiasm and what he’s learned with a younger generation to empower them so they can make an impact. “When you walked in that door, you didn’t have any idea of what was going on in the Pacific or any of the oceans around the world,” he tells his students. “As an individual, what do you want to do? How are you going to make that small change?”
The catalyst for Garzón came during a difficult personal time. While reflecting on his life, he began thinking about his daughter and young niece. Garzón vowed to do something positive so he started working with plastic and teaching. “I have my associates (degrees) in design and graphics, but I was always creative,” he said. His parents and teachers he had growing up challenged him and wouldn’t let him go astray. “I want to do the same.”
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Melted plastic trash on beaches can sometimes mix with sediment, basaltic lava fragments and organic debris (such as shells) to produce a new type of rock material, new research shows.
The new material, dubbed plastiglomerate, will forever remain in Earth's rock record, and in the future may serve as a geological marker for humankind's impact on the planet, researchers say.
Plastic pollution is a worldwide problem affecting every waterway, sea and ocean in the world, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council. First produced in the 1950s, plastic doesn't break down easily and is estimated to persist in the environment for hundreds to thousands of years. Plastic debris is also lightweight, allowing it to avoid being buried and becoming a part of the permanent geological record.
But while at Hawaii's Kamilo Beach, Capt. Charles Moore, an oceanographer with the Algalita Marine Research Institute in California, found that plastic, if melted, can actually become one with rocks, sediment and other geologic materials. (See Images of the Plastiglomerate Rock at Kamilo)
"He found some plastic had been melted to rocks, and other pieces of natural material had also been stuck on it," said study lead author Patricia Corcoran, a geologist at the University of Western Ontario (UWO) in Canada. "He didn't know what to call it. It's possible other people have found [the plastic conglomerates] at other locations before Captain Moore did, but nobody had thought to report it or identify it."
Corcoran attended a presentation Moore gave about his find, and she became immediately interested in investigating the material. So she, along with Moore and Kelly Jazvac, a visual artist at UWO, headed to Kamilo Beach to analyze the plastic formations.
Kamilo Beach, located on the southeastern tip of the Big Island of Hawaii, is often considered to be one of the dirtiest beaches in the world. Because of the current flow and high wave energy of the area, the beach is covered with plastic debris pulled in from the ocean, including fishing gear, food and drink containers and multicolored plastic fragments called "plastic confetti." (Photos: Tsunami Debris & Trash on Hawaii's Beaches)
The researchers discovered there are two types of plastiglomerates at Kamilo Beach: In situ and clastic.
In situ plastiglomerate is more rare than the clastic variety, and forms when "plastic melts on rock and becomes incorporated into the rock outcrop," Corcoran told Live Science, adding that the melted plastic can also get into the rock vesicles, or cavities. Clastic plastiglomerates, on the other hand, are loose rocky structures, composed of a combination of basalt, coral, shells, woody debris and sand that have been glued together by melted plastic.
A type of plastiglomerate called clastic, found on Kamilo Beach.Patricia Corcoran
When Moore first discovered Kamilo Beach's plastiglomerates, he hypothesized that molten lava had melted the plastic to create the new rock. However, the researchers found that lava had not flowed in that area since before plastics were first invented.
After digging further into the mystery and talking with locals, the researchers concluded that people inadvertently created the plastiglomerates after burning plastic debris, either intentionally to try to destroy the plastic or accidentally by way of campfires.
Given this origin for the beach's plastiglomerates, the team thinks the material could be present at a lot of other beaches around the world, particularly in areas where people camp or live.
"I would say that anywhere you have abundant plastic debris and humans, there will probably be plastiglomerates," Corcoran said. Additionally, other locations where there is both active volcanism and beaches polluted with plastic, such as Iceland and the Canary Islands, could have lava-produced plastiglomerates, she said.
At present, we live in the Holocene Epoch, which began nearly 12,000 years ago. In recent years, scientists have debated whether to formally identify a new geological era called the Anthropocene, which would mark the time period when human influence significantly altered Earth's physical, chemical and biological landscape. However, scientists can't agree when the Anthropocene should begin.
Whatever the case, there are several lines of evidence that highlight humankind's impact on the planet.
For instance, with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, a lot of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have been pumped into the atmosphere. And even further back, the rise of agriculture some 8,000 years ago fundamentally changed land use and led to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, as evidenced from analyses of ice cores. Additionally, soil profiles from peat bogs indicate that mining activities and the combustion of leaded gasoline have resulted in increased lead concentrations over the past 300 years, the researchers noted in their study.
With plastiglomerates, scientists now have another global marker for the Anthropocene, Corcoran said. "It definitely shows how humans have interacted with Earth's biophysical system."
What's more, Corcoran and her colleagues have analyzed the clastic plastiglomerates from Kamilo Beach, and found the new material is far denser than plastic-only particles. This suggests plastiglomerates have a much greater potential to become buried and preserved in the rock record than normal plastic debris, and that future generations of scientists will be able to look into the planet's geological record and find the plastiglomerates.
"One day in the future, people can look at this material and use it as a marker horizon to see that in around 2010, humans were polluting the planet with plastic," Corcoran said. "But that's not a legacy we really want."
The researchers describe plastiglomerate in the June issue of the journal GSA Today.
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