NASA/JPL-Caltech/K. Su (Univ. of Arizona)
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched 10 years ago and has since peeled back an infrared veil on the Cosmos. The mission has worked in parallel with NASA's other "Great Observatories" (Hubble and Chandra) to provide coverage of the emissions from galaxies, interstellar dust, comet tails and the solar system's planets. But some of the most striking imagery to come from the orbiting telescope has been that of nebulae. Supernova remnants, star-forming regions and planetary nebulae are some of the most iconic objects to be spotted by Spitzer. So, to celebrate a decade in space, here are Discovery News' favorite Spitzer nebulae.
First up, the Helix Nebula -- a so-called planetary nebula -- located around 700 light-years from Earth. A planetary nebula is the remnants of the death throes of a red giant star -- all that remains is a white dwarf star in the core, clouded by cometary dust.
NASA/JPL-Caltech/B. Williams (NCSU)
Spitzer will often work in tandem with other space telescopes to image a broad spectrum of light from celestial objects. Here, the supernova remnant RCW 86 is imaged by NASA's Spitzer, WISE and Chandra, and ESA's XMM-Newton.
Staring deep into the Messier 78 star-forming nebula, Spitzer sees the infrared glow of baby stars blasting cavities into the cool nebulous gas and dust.
The green-glowing infrared ring of the nebula RCW 120 is caused by tiny dust grains called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons -- the bubble is being shaped by the powerful stellar winds emanating from the central massive O-type star.
NASA/JPL-Caltech/J. Stauffer (SSC/Caltech)
Spitzer stares deep into the Orion nebula, imaging the infrared light generated by a star factory.
X-Ray: NASA/CXC/J.Hester (ASU); Optical: NASA/ESA/J.Hester & A.Loll (ASU); Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R.Gehrz (Univ. Minn.)
In the year 1054 A.D. a star exploded as a supernova. Today, Spitzer was helped by NASA's other "Great Observatories" (Hubble and Chandra) to image the nebula that remains. The Crab Nebula is the result; a vast cloud of gas and dust with a spinning pulsar in the center.
The Tycho supernova remnant as imaged by Spitzer (in infrared wavelengths) and Chandra (X-rays). The supernova's powerful shockwave is visible as the outer blue shell, emitting X-rays.
NASA/JPL-Caltech/E. Churchwell (University of Wisconsin - Madison)
Over 2,200 baby stars can be seen inside the bustling star-forming region RCW 49.
X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ.Potsdam/L.Oskinova et al; Optical: NASA/STScI; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech
The "Wing" of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) glitters with stars and warm clouds of dust and gas. By combining observations by Spitzer, Chandra and Hubble, the complex nature of this nebulous region can be realized.
NASA’s Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) is back in the business of tracking down near-Earth objects after a two-year sabbatical.
The NEOWISE mission, which uncovered 34,000 new asteroids and characterized 158,000 more between 2010 and 2011, was switched off in February 2011 for 31 months. The spacecraft has now been switched back on to re-start its quest to track lumps of space rock that stray into Earth’s interplanetary neighborhood.
Before it was renamed to NEOWISE, the cryogenically-cooled spacecraft was known as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). WISE cataloged the entire infrared sky, discovering cool celestial objects like brown dwarfs, distant galaxies, interstellar dust, comets and asteroids. Now, during its “warm” phase (the cryogenic coolant has run out, leaving two of its four infrared instruments operational), the spacecraft has been renamed and devoted solely to the asteroid hunt.
“NEOWISE not only gives us a better understanding of the asteroids and comets we study directly, but it will help us refine our concepts and mission operation plans for future, space-based near-Earth object cataloging missions,” said Amy Mainzer, principal investigator for NEOWISE at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.
“The spacecraft is in excellent health, and the new images look just as good as they were before hibernation. Over the next weeks and months we will be gearing up our ground-based data processing and expect to get back into the asteroid hunting business, and acquire our first previously undiscovered space rock, in the next few months.”
NEOWISE was powered up in September and today, the first test infrared observations of known asteroids have been released.
Pictured top, the dotted line shows the trajectory of the 26 mile-wide main belt asteroid 872 Holda as it passed through the constellation Pisces (the thin streak is a man made satellite passing through the NEOWISE field of view). This is one of the first images retrieved from the new NEOWISE campaign and it appears to be functioning just fine.
NEOWISE is a critical observatory in the hunt for NEOs and the identification of future targets for NASA’s asteroid capture mission.