Neanderthals Knew Plant Medicine: It's incredible what researchers can find by simply looking at our teeth. This week an international effort at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and the University of York determined there was plant material in fossilized plaque on neanderthal teeth.

The plaque, aside from revealing a bit about neanderthal dental hygiene showed, "wood-fire smoke, a range of cooked starchy foods, two plants known today for their medicinal qualities, and bitumen or oil shale trapped in the dental calculus." The findings indicated the neanderthals had "sophisticated knowledge of their natural surroundings which included the ability to select and use certain plants for their nutritional value and for self-medication." via PhysOrg