There's a very good chance that some of the medicine in your home contains an animal-derived ingredient. The most frequently included animal-based ingredients in meds, according to a new study in the British Medical Journal, are lactose (often extracted from curdled cow’s milk), gelatin (frequently sourced from cows) and magnesium stearate, which can also come from a cow and is a magnesium salt containing stearic acid. A PETA fact sheet mentions that stearic acid additionally can come from dogs and cats euthanized in animal shelters, but cows remain the primary source. “Lactose, the most common ingredient we found in medications, was largely made using the lining of young cow stomachs as part of the manufacturing process,” BMJ study co-author Kinesh Patel told Discovery News. Patel is a research fellow at St. Mark’s Hospital’s Wolfson Unit for Endoscopy in the U.K.PHOTOS: Animals Rescuing Animals
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Both magnesium stearate and gelatin, along with a blood clot preventer called heparin, can come from pigs. Patel and co-author Kate Tatham told Discovery News that the top 10 common medicines most likely to contain ingredients derived from animals are: aspirin, simvastatin, paracetamol, thyroxine, omeprazole, lansoprazole, salbutamol, ramipril, amlodipine and atorvastatin. Aside from aspirin, most of these are sold under snazzier brand names, so if you are curious or concerned about animal-based ingredients, be sure to read labels carefully and research drugs via the manufacturer’s website and other provided information.PHOTOS: Animal Superpower -- The Eyes Have It
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Estrogen is sometimes sourced from female hormones derived from pregnant mares’ urine, according to PETA. Horses and other animals are not killed for drug manufacturing, though, according to Patel. He said the ingredients are “likely to be from leftovers” of butchering for other purposes. In the United States, this likely means animals found in meat markets, such as cows and pigs. But in Central Asia, for example, horse meat is considered to be acceptable.Top 10 Camera Trap Wildlife Photos
Gelatin in drugs can come from fish, the researchers share. They add that many patients are unaware that commonly prescribed drugs often contain animal ingredients. “Our data suggest that it is likely that patients are unwittingly ingesting medications containing animal products with neither prescriber nor dispenser aware,” Patel and Tatham wrote. They call for improved drug labeling, mirroring the standards advised for food.Best Ocean Animal Photos of 2013
Chitosan, a binder in some ointments, is derived from shellfish shells. It helps to bind lipids, or fats, in medicines and other products, such as hair-care items and antiperspirants. Although the level of this and other possible animal products in many medications is likely to be minimal, Patel and Tatham say doctors need to consider this when prescribing "to avoid non-adherence, which is a major healthcare concern." Adherence, in this case, means that doctors should be forthright about what’s contained in medications.PHOTOS: Animals That Use Flash to Attract
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A red pigment known as carmine or carminic acid can come from an insect called the cochineal (and the pigment is sometimes called cochineal). According to a report on Foodnet, the pharmaceutical industry uses cochineal to color pills and ointments. There are conflicting studies as to how such ingredients -- in very small amounts -- might affect human health. A study conducted by J.B. Greig of the Food Standards Agency in London found that cochineal could be linked to asthma. Patel and Tatham, however, told Discovery News: “There are no specific health concerns associated with the ingestion of any of these (animal and insect derived) ingredients.”PHOTOS: Madagascar Home to 615 Newly Discovered Species
Some ointments contain ingredients derived from egg protein. These, and other ingredients, usually can be substituted with compounds from other sources. “The medicines we investigated could largely be made without animal-derived products,” Patel said. He added that the more commonly used gelatin and magnesium stearate inclusions now have vegetarian counterparts.PHOTOS: Animals Make Art
The oil glands of sheep produce lanolin, found in many medicines and ointments. Those who are vegan or vegetarian try to avoid use of such animal products. The researchers further point out that religion, culture, economic status, environmental concerns, food intolerances and personal preferences also can influence whether a person wishes to consume an animal-derived ingredient.PHOTOS: Mink, Rats, Bats Go to Super Bowl Too
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The enzyme lipase can be derived from juvenile sheep, aka lambs. Lipase is in some medicines treating digestion problems. PETA mentions that the enzyme can come “from the stomachs and tongue glands of calves, kids and lambs.”PHOTOS: Most Amazing Animal Friendships
Shark liver oil, squalene, is in some vaccines and over-the-counter products, such as glucosamine (chondrontin). “Many of the companies are multinationals,” Patel said. Shark-based ingredients are thought to largely come from Asia, where a shark slaughterhouse was recently found in southeastern China. The organization WildLifeRisk found that the factory processes approximately 600 whale sharks and basking sharks each year.PHOTOS: Animal Olympians
Animal testing for human pharmaceutical products often centers on animal livers, but scientists have invented a fake liver that appears to be just as effective for drug testing purposes and requires no killing of critters.
The liver "stand in," announced today at the 247th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society, could dramatically alter how drugs are made and tested.
"Researchers in drug discovery make small quantities of new potential drug compounds and then test them in animals," Mukund Chorghade, who worked on the project, said in a press release. "It is a very painstaking, laborious and costly process."
"Frequently, scientists have to sacrifice many animals, and even after all that, the results are not optimal," added Chorghade, who is chief scientific officer of Empiriko Corporation and president of THINQ Pharma.
The traditional drug testing process usually involves what's known as metabolic profiling. Researchers administer a test drug to an animal, see if it works, and then monitor how the liver breaks down the drug. They watch for molecular byproducts, or metabolites, which are often responsible for causing nasty side effects.
Most drugs come with a laundry list of side effects, but the good of the drug should obviously outweigh the bad. The tests for metabolites are therefore very important.
Instead of using real livers for such tests, Chorghade and his colleagues have developed "chemosynthetic livers," which seem to work just as well. The faux livers are really a mix of chemicals that function like compounds in actual livers. Researchers add them to a test tube, along with the drug being tested, and look for the resulting metabolites, per usual.
"These chemosynthetic livers not only produce the same metabolites as live animals in a fraction of the time," Chorghade said, "but they also provide a more comprehensive metabolic profile, in far larger quantities for further testing and analysis."
The chemosynthetic livers have not yet been approved to take the place of animal tests. Chorghade's team has tested more than 50 drugs so far to show that the liver stand-in accurately mimics how the human body processes these drugs. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires testing of at least 100 drugs, however, for regulatory approval.
Approval should be worth the wait, though, as the new "livers" could also be used to detoxify blood for liver transplant patients, according to the researchers. They say their new tests could also help in predicting side effects when multiple drugs are taken together.
(Image: a sheep liver with parts numbered; Credit: Wikimedia Commons)