Office of Naval Research
A small enough package would allow lasers to be mounted aboard a Humvee.
Lasers may bring to mind military-grade weaponry or the pew-pew sounds of science fiction blasters, but powerful laser tech can be used for less destructive purposes. Scientists and engineers are now aiming lasers at persistent problems like air turbulence, inoperable tumors and drug addiction. Here's a look at the ways zapping something with a beam of light can actually help rather than hurt.
J.P. Wolf / University of Geneva
Scientists -- and super villains -- have long wanted to control the weather with technology. What once seemed like a wild dream has become possible in theory. In late 2013, the World Meteorological Organization conference in Geneva held a Laser, Weather and Climate conference where participants discussed controlling lightning and condensation with laser assists.
More recently researchers at the University of Florida and the University of Arizona surrounded one laser beam with another, a technique they think could help a high-energy beam go greater distances.
In 2010, neurosurgeons from Washington University were among the first in the United States to use a laser probe on brain tumors thought to be inoperable. The team, led by chief of neurosurgery Ralph G. Dacey Jr., employed the new MRI-guided probe from Monteris Medical to kill cancer cells deep in a patient’s brain, leaving the surrounding tissue intact. Last year the laser probe, called the NeuroBlate Thermal Therapy System, was cleared by the Food and Drug Administration.
Laser beams could be the key to getting hearts beating correctly, an alternative to current electrode-based pacemakers that can do damage to heart muscle over the long-term. In 2010, scientists from Case Western University and Vanderbilt University successfully paced a live quail embryo heart with light from an infrared laser.
While we don’t quite have human optical pacemakers yet, a team from the University College London recently made headway with a separate laser-based technique. They’re hoping to create an “optical pacemaker” for the diaphragm that could help patients with motor neuron diseases like ALS breathe independently.
Apira Science Inc.
Apira Science Inc.’s iGrow helmet to combat baldness may not look serious at first, but the company says this low-level laser therapy has been proven effective at stimulating cell activity around weak hair follicles. The helmet interior has red laser and LED light diodes that go to work in multiple weekly sessions over several months.
Apria points to an article in the journal Lasers in Surgery and Medicine that concluded low level laser therapy improved hair counts for men with alopecia compared to a placebo light-up helmet.
B. Chen / NIDA
Could controlling addiction be as easy as flipping a switch? In 2013, scientists from the National Institutes of Health and the University of California were able to turn off compulsive behavior in rats through a combination of genetic engineering and laser light delivered through fiber optic cables. When they turned on a laser light in the brain region responsible for decision-making and impulse control, the compulsive cocaine seeking was gone, according to researcher Antonello Bonci.
While lasers were used for the study, techniques like noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation would probably be used for human trials.
Craik Sustainable Living Project, Flickr Creative Commons
A team from Leibniz University Hanover led by biosystems engineering professor Thomas Rath has been working on a way to eradicate pesky weeds with lasers. In 2012 he and his colleagues investigated mid-infrared range lasers as an alternative to herbicides.
A year later Leibniz University engineers shifted their focus and began studying the effects of near-infrared lasers on pests like aphids and whiteflies. They hope the right lase blast will safely kill the pests while leaving the host plants unaffected.
Last summer frequent fliers got a glimmer of hope for smoother travel. Researchers at the German Aerospace Center DLR’s Institute of Atmospheric Physics began testing technology that can detect turbulence, particularly the clear air kind that’s nearly impossible to predict. The device goes onboard a plane and emits short-wave ultraviolet laser radiation along the direction of flight, according to DLR. This reveals fluctuations in air density that indicate turbulence ahead. DRL has been testing the tech on flights in Europe with the goal of extending the detection distance to 20 miles.
lloydabell34, Flickr Creative Commons
Stanford University bioengineering, psychiatry and behavioral science professor Karl Deisseroth is a pioneer in using a technique called optogenetics, which involves genetically modifying neurons so they make a light-sensitive protein. Those cells can then be turned on or off with laser-based light.
Recently a group from University College London led by neurobiologist Linda Greensmith used optogenetics on paralyzed mice. Her group grafted genetically engineered motor neurons onto severed nerves in mice legs. Shining blue light on them restored nerve connectivity, reversing the paralysis.
Laser weapons mounted aboard U.S. Navy ships and large trucks have already shown the power to shoot down flying drones during test trials. That early success has encouraged the U.S. military to fund a new effort to develop smaller versions of these anti-drone weapons that can fit light ground vehicles such as the military Humvee.
U.S. Marines and other troops will soon need such anti-drone defenses on battlefields. The U.S. may have pioneered the use of military drones for airstrikes and surveillance, but it's just one of 23 countries currently developing armed unmanned aircraft, according to a RAND report. The latest project by the U.S. Office of Naval Research aims to develop a 30-kilowatt laser system for military vehicles that could be ready for field testing in 2016 — a huge step after years of efforts to build smaller military lasers.
"We're confident we can bring together all of these pieces in a package that's small enough to be carried on light tactical vehicles and powerful enough to counter these threats," said Brigadier General Kevin Killea, vice chief of naval research and commanding general of the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory, in a press release.
A small enough package would allow the lasers to be mounted aboard the Humvee and that vehicle's planned replacement, known as the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (the vehicle commonly used by U.S. Marines and Army soldiers to get around). The Office of Naval Research recently awarded contracts to develop the laser weapons as part of the Ground-Based Air Defense Directed Energy On-the-Move (GBAD) program.
A 2013 special program announcement about GBAD described a laser weapon with a minimum output power of 25 kW and a maximum of 50 kW. Such a weapon would ideally have the ability to fire at full power for two minutes, followed by 20 minutes of recharging so its power source can reach an 80-percent state of charge.
Power for the laser would come from a combination of the high energy density batteries and vehicle's prime power generated by the engine drive shaft, said Lee Mastroianni, program manager at the Office of Naval Research. The weight of the batteries has not been set, but the Humvee's power system — on-board vehicle power system (OBVP) — adds about 180 kilograms to the total vehicle weight.
The OBVP in use now, made by DRS Technologies, can generate 30 kW of continuous power while the vehicle is stationary and the engine is running or about 10 kW on the move.
Some of the laser system's detection and tracking components have already been tested on drones "of all sizes," according to the press release. Navy researchers plan to test a 10-kW laser against more targets later this year, with the aim of building up to a 30-kW laser.
The Navy's interest in laser weapons extends across both land and sea. In April, the Office of Naval Research announced plans to install a laser weapon aboard the USS Ponce transport ship for testing in the Persian Gulf this summer. Such a laser has already proven it can destroy drones and small boats.
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