TORU YAMANAKA/AFP/Getty Images
Surfers walk out of the sea on Toyoma Beach, some 50 kilometres south of the broken Fukushima nuclear power plant, in Iwaki, Fukushima prefecture, on August 24, 2013.
Google Crisis Response Team; Google, GeoEye,
UPDATE: March 11, 2012
-- This collection of satellite images was originally produced on March 14, 2011, days after the 9.0-magnitude earthquake and resulting tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan. The known death toll came to 15,848 with 3,305 missing. The tsunami also inundated the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant causing a series of failures that led to the world's largest nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The above photos show Yuriage in Natori (top); and Yagawahama (bottom) -- both are in Miyagi prefecture.
PHOTOS: Top Five Cities on Faults
Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant
Image from March 12, 2011 (before outer shell collapse).
Industrial Site Just South of Fukushima I Power Plant
Image from March 12, 2011.
ANALYSIS: Japan, One Year Later: In the Radiation Zone
Fukushima II Power Plant
Image taken in 2004. Fukushima II Power Plant is located about 7 miles south of the Fukushima I Power Plant.
Tokyo on Tuesday unveiled a half-billion dollar plan to stem radioactive water leaks at Fukushima, creating a wall of ice underneath the stricken plant, as the government elbowed the operator aside.
Acknowledging global concerns over a so-far "haphazard" management of the crisis by Tokyo Electric Power (TEPCO), Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said his administration will step in with public money to get the job done.
"The government needs to resolve the problem by standing at the forefront," he told a meeting of his nuclear disaster response team.
"Discarding the current, impromptu response, we will set up our basic policies for a fundamental resolution of the contaminated water problem.
"The government will do its best and take the necessary fiscal action," he said, referring to tapping taxpayer funds.
Tokyo's intervention comes just days before a decision in Argentina by the International Olympic Committee on who should host the 2020 Games. Observers have warned the situation at Fukushima could prove the undoing of Tokyo's bid.
"The world is paying attention to whether we can realise the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi, including the contaminated water problem," Abe said.
Thousands of tonnes of radioactive water is being stored in temporary tanks at the site, 220 kilometres (135 miles) north of the Japanese capital, much of it having been used to cool molten reactors wrecked by the tsunami of March 2011.
The discovery of leaks from some of these tanks or from pipes feeding them, as well as radiation hotspots on the ground even where no water is evident, has created a growing sense of crisis.
Some of the highly toxic water that has escaped may have made its way into the Pacific Ocean, TEPCO has admitted.
On top of this, the natural flow of groundwater from the surrounding hillsides, which goes underneath the plant and out to sea, is also causing problems.
As it pours through the soil it is mixing with polluted fluid that has seeped into the ground under the reactors.
TEPCO says up to 300 tonnes of this mildly radioactive groundwater is making its way into the sea every day.
Under the 47 billion yen ($470 million) scheme announced Tuesday, scientists will freeze the soil around the stricken reactors to form an impenetrable wall they hope will direct groundwater away from the plant.
This will entail burying pipes vertically and passing refrigerant through them. Officials estimate the whole project will take two years and cost around 32 billion yen.
A further 15 billion yen will be spent on equipment to remove radiation from water currently being stored.
On Monday, the head of Japan's nuclear watchdog said it was "unavoidable" that water would have to be released into the ocean at some point, although he stressed it would have to be largely decontaminated first.
TEPCO's clean-up at Fukushima has come in for increasing criticism from politicians, academics and Japan's usually quiescent public.
Abe on Monday described TEPCO's approach to the crisis as "haphazard" and vowed to take over the initiative in containing the leak from the troubled firm.
Last week, a government minister compared its approach to plugging leaks with "whack-a-mole", the anarchic fairground game in which players must hit furry creatures with a mallet as they pop up at random.
The utility -- one of the largest in the world -- has been effectively nationalised by vast government bailouts needed to stop it from sinking beneath the weight of bills from the clean-up and compensation claims.
While the natural disaster that sparked the nuclear emergency at Fukushima claimed more than 18,000 lives, no one is officially recorded as having died as a direct result of the radiation leaks.
However, vast tracts of land had to be evacuated, with tens of thousands of people still displaced.