Image: Artist's impression of the Huygens pro
10. Saturn Moon Titan Explored
On Jan. 14, 2005, the European Space Agency's Huygens probe dropped through Titan's atmosphere after a seven-year trek attached to NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Huygens wasn't designed to live for very long after atmospheric reentry, but it unveiled a mysterious outer solar system world to us for the first time. Before this mission, very little was known about Saturn's largest moon, and scientists were unsure whether Huygens would land on a rocky surface or in an ocean. Titan's thick atmosphere -- composed of primarily nitrogen and clouds of methane and ethane, about 50 percent thicker than our atmosphere -- signaled to scientists that Titan was similar to a young Earth. Observations from the Huygens probe and Cassini spacecraft tell us that Titan and Earth share many features, such as sand dunes and lakes. But these features are heavily laced with organic molcules that could support life, leading researchers to speculate about Titan's potential to nurture microbes.
Image: The cratered surface of the moon (NASA
9. Moon Water Confirmed
India's Chandrayaan-1 satellite confirmed the presence of water on the moon in September 2009, building on flyby observations by other probes on their way elsewhere. Although the lunar surface is still drier than Earth's driest desert, evidence of water is there, hinting at a solar wind interaction with the moon's surface that produces water and hydroxyl molecules. It may not be an oasis up there, but future moon colonists could extract and purify the traces of water from the surface to use for drinking, food cultivation, oxygen and fuel. Or, our colonists could take a trek to the moon's poles to mine water from the deepest craters On Oct. 9, 2009, NASA dropped a spent rocket into a crater to produce a 100-foot-wide hole. They found water there too. That rocket produced a massive plume of dust that was analyzed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and ground-based observatories. At least 25 gallons of water ice was detected in the plume.
Image: Artist's impression of Comet Tempel 1
8. Organic Chemistry Collected from Comet's Tail
In 2004, the NASA Stardust mission chased after Comet Wild 2 to find out if the icy mass contained the building blocks for life, since meteorites found on Earth contained organic chemistry that originated from space. Sure enough, in August 2009, NASA announced that they had found samples of glycine -- an amino acid -- in Stardust's collection plates. It didn't stop there, there's increasing evidence that exoplanets orbiting distant stars contain organic chemistry in their atmospheres. In 2008, organic chemicals were detected in the disk surrounding a star called HR 4796A, 220 light-years from Earth. And most recently, NASA's Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes detected carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor in the atmosphere of an exoplanet called HD 209458b. These discoveries, sparked by Stardust, have transformed our understanding about how life may have formed on Earth. They also give us a strong hint that life may not be unique to Earth; the universe appears to be manufacturing organic chemistry everywhere.
Image: X-ray observastion of the center of ou
7. A Supermassive Black Hole on Our Doorstep
There's a monster living in the center of our galaxy, 26,000 light-years from Earth. By 2008, astronomers tracking the behavior of stars orbiting an invisible point confirmed that the monster is a supermassive black hole called Sagittarius A*. A lone star called "S2," with a very fast orbit, has been tracked since 1995 around this invisible point. In 2002, Rainer Schödel and his team at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics announced that the only explanation for S2's fast orbit was that it was circling a very compact, massive object -- a supermassive black hole -- that was stopping the star from flinging out of its orbit into space. In 2008, after S2 completed one 16-year orbit, it was confirmed that the star was orbiting a black hole with a gargantuan mass of approximately 4.3 million suns. The confirmation of a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way boosted the theory that most galaxies contain a supermassive black hole at their cores.
Image: A WMAP map of variations in microwave
6. Big Bang "Echo" Mapped for the First Time
In June 2001, NASA set out to find the ancient "echo" of the Big Bang by mapping the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation that buzzes like static throughout the cosmos, using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) . When the universe was born, vast amounts of energy were unleashed, which eventually condensed into the stuff that makes up the mass of what we see today. The radiation that was created by the Big Bang still exists, but as faint microwaves. By mapping slight variations in the CMB radiation, the probe has been able to precisely measure the age of the universe (13.73 billion years old) and work out that a huge 96 percent of the mass of the universe is made up of stuff we cannot see. Only 4 percent of the cosmic mass is held in the stars and galaxies we observe; the rest is held in "dark energy" and "dark matter."
Image: A Type Ia supernova explodes in the ou
5. Hubble Gets to Grips with Dark Energy
In 2002, the Hubble Space Telescope was upgraded with a new instrument, the Advanced Camera for Surveys, that revealed the presence of a mysterious force called "dark energy." The camera was set up to help researchers understand why Type Ia supernovae were dimmer than expected. Hubble's observations of these supernovae discovered that they weren't dimmer because the stars were different (they should all explode with the same brightness). The only explanation was that the universe's expansion was unexpectedly and inexplicably speeding up. This accelerated expansion was making the light dim over vast cosmic distances. Hubble's discovery led to a better understanding of what dark energy is -- an invisible force that opposes gravity, causing the universe's expansion to speed up. WATCH VIDEO about Hubble's most recent upgrade.
Image: Artist's impression of Eris and moon D
4. Eris Discovered; Pluto Demoted
In January 2005, Mike Brown and his team at Palomar Observatory, Calif. discovered 136199 Eris, a minor body that is 27 percent bigger than Pluto. Eris had trumped Pluto and become the 9th largest body known to orbit the sun. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) decided that the likelihood of finding more small rocky bodies in the outer solar system was so high that the definition "a planet" needed to be reconsidered. The end result: Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet and it acquired a "minor planet designator" in front of its name: "134340 Pluto." WATCH VIDEO about Pluto's demotion to a minor planet. Mike Brown's 2005 discovery of Eris was the trigger that changed the face of our solar system, defining the planets and adding Pluto to a growing family of dwarf planets.
Image: The Bullet Nebula (NASA)
3. Dark Matter Detected
In the summer of 2006, astronomers made an announcement that helped humans understand the cosmos a little better: They had direct evidence confirming the existence of dark matter -- even though they still can't say what exactly the stuff is. The unprecedented evidence came from the careful weighing of gas and stars flung about in the head-on smash-up between two great clusters of galaxies in the Bullet Cluster. Until then, the existence of dark matter was inferred by the fact that galaxies have only one-fifth of the visible matter needed to create the gravity that keeps them intact. So the rest must be invisible to telescopes: That unseen matter is "dark." The observations of the Bullet Cluster, officially known as galaxy cluster 1E0657-56, did not explain what dark matter is. They did, however, give researchers hints that dark matter particles act a certain way, which they can build on. -- Larry O'Hanlon
Image: The red surface of Mars, plus Phoenix'
2. Mars Surface Gives up Signs of Water
In 2008, NASA's Mars Phoenix lander touched down on the Red Planet to confirm the presence of water and seek out signs of organic compounds. Eight years before, the Mars Global Surveyor spotted what appeared to be gullies carved into the landscape by flowing water. More recently, the Mars Expedition Rovers have uncovered minerals that also indicated the presence of ancient water. But proof of modern-day water was illusive. Then Phoenix, planted on the ground near the North Pole, did some digging for samples to analyze. During one dig, the onboard cameras spotted a white powder in the freshly dug soil. In comparison images taken over the coming days, the powder slowly vanished. After intense analysis, the white powder was confirmed as water ice. This discovery not only confirmed the presence of water on the Red Planet, it reenergized the hope that some kind of microbial life might be using this water supply to survive.
Image: Hubble's optical light view of of the
1. Alien Planets Spotted Directly
The first alien planets -- called exoplanets -- were being detected in the early 1990s, but not directly. In 2000, astronomers detected a handful by looking for a star's "wobble," or a star's slight dimming as the exoplanet passed in front of it. Today we know of 400 exoplanets. In 2008, astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope and the infrared Keck and Gemini observatories in Hawaii announced that they had "seen" exoplanets orbiting distant stars. The two observatories had taken images of these alien worlds. The Keck observation was the infrared detection of three exoplanets orbiting a star called HR8799, 150 light-years from Earth. Hubble spotted one massive exoplanet orbiting the star Fomalhaut, 25 light-years from Earth. These finds pose a profound question: How long will it be until we spot an Earth-like world with an extraterrestrial civilization looking back at us?
Last month, astrophysicists announced a groundbreaking discovery: compelling evidence for gravitational waves had been found and the source of these waves might be the inflationary period just after the Big Bang.
Compelling the evidence may be, but could there be another explanation?
In a paper submitted to the arXiv preprint archive last week, a trio of theoretical physicists pushed back on the historic Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization 2 (BICEP2) finding, suggesting that there may be another source of the gravitational waves: What if they weren’t generated during the rapid period of inflation?
First, let’s rewind a little. What is inflation and how are gravitational waves strong evidence of its occurrence?
In a nutshell, when the BICEP2 researchers detected polarized ripples in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the signal strongly matched theoretical predictions as to what gravitational waves should look like. Until now, gravitational waves — that Einstein theorized during the formulation of his bedrock theory of general relativity nearly 100 years ago — have been maddeningly difficult to detect. So, at first glance, the BICEP2 finding is a historic one; this is strong observational evidence for gravitational waves, a fact that no scientist is disputing.
But how did these gravitational waves end up being etched into the CMB? This is the point of contention.
The CMB exists right at the very limit of our observational capabilities. Widely regarded as the “echo” of the Big Bang, which occurred nearly 14 billion years ago, we can analyze the very slight temperature fluctuations in the CMB (known as “anisotropies”) to gain an insight to the structure of the Universe just after the Big Bang.
For the Universe to exist in its current scale and for it to have been spawned from a point, however, cosmologists believe the Big Bang had to have been followed by an intense period of acceleration. This faster-than-light expansion occurred a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a millionth of a second after the Big Bang.
For our current understanding of the Universe to hold true, inflation had to occur. This is where the BICEP2 results comes in.
As interpreted by the BICEP2 team, the gravitational wave polarization signature embedded in the CMB suggests that the gravitational waves themselves have inflationary origin. Gravitational waves are generated by the most energetic events in the Universe — from black holes colliding to stars exploding — like ripples traveling across the surface of a pond, these waves travel through spacetime at the speed of light.
Inflation theory researchers also believe that primordial gravitational waves may be generated during the most violent event our Universe has ever seen: inflation. And the BICEP2 results certainly point to strong evidence of an inflationary (and quantum) origin of these waves.
However, theoretical physicists James B. Dent (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Lawrence M. Krauss (Arizona State University, Tempe) and Harsh Mathur (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio) think that the BICEP2 researchers may have overlooked an alternate source of these waves.
“While the Inflationary signal remains the best motivated source (of the gravitational wave signal), the current measurement unfortunately still allows for the possibility that a comparable gravitational wave background might result from a self ordering scalar field transition that takes place later at somewhat lower energy,” the physicists write.
So what does this mean?
After the Big Bang, the Universe was a seething chaotic mess of energy. As the Universe cooled, this energy slowly condensed — like raindrops forming from vapor in clouds — to create the fundamental particles and forces we know and love in our modern epoch. Each particle and force came into existence after each successive “phase change” — but these phase changes weren’t created equal and didn’t occur at the same time across the entire Universe; phase changes occurred in localized pockets.
But at a critical point, when the Universe was cool enough, these pockets are thought to have aligned all at once, “snapping” into place.
Although this critical point phase change across the entire Universe was of a lower energy than the inflationary period that came before it, Dent and co. theorize that it would have created a violent ripple that could have spawned the gravitational waves that BICEP2 is now observing in the CMB.
As pointed out by the arXiv Physics Blog on Medium.com, the theorists are not debating whether or not inflation occurred, they are highlighting another possible source for the gravitational waves.
When it comes to unraveling the mysteries of the dawn of the Cosmos, you can’t pick one theory that “proves” one mechanism — it’s a process of elimination where competing theories are tested against observational evidence. Although the BICEP2 researchers have found compelling evidence of gravitational waves with inflationary origin, this new paper shows that theoretical physicists are far from finding a consensus.