R. J. GaBany (Blackbird Obs.)
The Umbrella Galaxy was named after the wispy feature seen on the left here that looks like a cosmic parasol. This "umbrella" is actually debris from a small galaxy that has been shredded apart by gravity. This image combines data from the 0.5-metre BlackBird Remote Observatory Telescope and Suprime-Cam on the 8-meter Subaru Telescope in Hawaii.
Andrew Cooper/W. M. Keck Observatory
March 13, 2013, marks 20 years since the W. M. Keck Observatory began taking observations of the cosmos. Located in arguably one of the most extreme and beautiful places on the planet -- atop Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, 13,803 ft (4,207 m) above sea level -- the twin Keck domes have observed everything from asteroids, planets, exoplanets to dying stars, distant galaxies and nebulae. Seen in this photograph, the Keck I and Keck II telescopes dazzle the skies with their adaptive optics lasers -- a system that helps cancel out the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, bringing science some of the clearest views attainable by a ground-based observatory.
To celebrate the last two decades of incredible science, Discovery News has assembled some of the most impressive imagery to come from Keck.
William Merline, SWRI / W.M. Keck Observatory
Starting very close to home, the Keck II captured this infrared image of asteroid 2005 YU55 as it flew past Earth on Nov. 8, 2011.
Larry Sromovsky (University of Wisconsin)
Deeper into the solar system, the Keck NIRC2 near-infrared camera captured this beautiful observation of the oddball Uranus on July 11-12, 2004. The planet's north pole is at 4 o'clock.
W.M Keck Observatory/NASA/JPL-G.Orton
This is a mosaic false-color image of thermal heat emission from Saturn and its rings on Feb. 4, 2004, captured by the Keck I telescope at 17.65 micron wavelengths.
Antonin Bouchez (W. M. Keck Observatory)
A nice image of Saturn with Keck I telescope with the near infrared camera (NIRC) on Nov. 6, 1998. This is a composite of images taken in Z and J bands (1.05 and 1.3 microns), with the color scaling adjusted so it looks like Saturn is supposed to look to the naked eye.
Antonin Bouchez, W.M. Keck Observatory
This is Saturn's giant moon Titan -- a composite of three infrared bands captured by the Near Infrared Camera-2 on the 10-meter Keck II telescope. It was taken by astronomer Antonin Bouchez on June 7, 2011.
W. M. Keck Observatory/SRI/New Mexico State University
Another multicolored look at Titan -- a near-infrared color composite image taken with the Keck II adaptive optics system. Titan's surface appears red, while haze layers at progressively higher altitudes in the atmosphere appear green and blue.
Mike Brown, Caltech / W.M. Keck Observatory
This image of Neptune and its largest Tritan was captured by Caltech astronomer Mike Brown in September 2011. It shows the wind-whipped clouds, thought to exceed 1,200 miles per hour along the equator.
A color composite image of Jupiter in the near infrared and its moon Io. The callout at right shows a closeup of the two red spots through a filter which looks deep in the cloud layer to see thermal radiation.
Christian Marois, NRC and Bruce Macintosh, LLNL/W. M. Keck Observatory
HR 8799: Three exoplanets orbiting a young star 140 light years away are captured using Keck Observatory's near-infrared adaptive optics. This was the first direct observation by a ground-based observatory of worlds orbiting another star (2008).
Bob Goodrich, Mike Bolte, and the ESI team
Now to the extremes -- an image of Stephan's Quintet, a small compact group of galaxies.
W.M. Keck Observatory
The Egg Nebula: This Protoplanetary nebula is reflecting light from a dying star that is shedding its outer layers in the final stages of its life.
W. M. Keck Observatory
This is WR 104, a dying star. Known as a Wolf Rayet star, this massive stellar object will end its life in the most dramatic way -- possibly as a gamma-ray burst. The spiral is caused by gases blasting from the star as it orbits with another massive star.
W. M. Keck Observatory/UCLA
Narrow-field image of the center of the Milky Way. The arrow marks the location of radio source Sge A*, a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.
Dr. Mark Morris (UCLA) Keck II, Mirlen instrument
A high resolution mid-infrared picture taken of the center of our Milky Way reveals details about dust swirling into the black hole that dominates the region.
Mansi Kasliwal, Caltech and Iair Arcavi, Weizmann Institute of Science/W. M. Keck Observatory
A false-color image of a spiral galaxy in the constellation Camelopardalis.
A scintillating square-shaped nebula nestled in the vast sea of stars. Combining infrared data from the Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory and the Keck II telescope, researchers characterized the remarkably symmetrical “Red Square” nebula.
ESA, NASA, J.-P. Kneib (Caltech/Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees) and R. Ellis (Caltech)/W. M. Keck Observatory
Galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is acting as a powerful lens, magnifying all galaxies lying behind the cluster's core. The lensed galaxies are all stretched along the shear direction, and some of them are multiply imaged.
UC Berkeley/NASA/W. M. Keck Observatory
The central starburst region of the dwarf galaxy IC 10. In this composite color image, near infrared images obtained with the Keck II telescope have been combined with visible-light images taken with NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.
Astronomers are studying the feeding habits of a cosmic cannibal to learn how galaxies grow.
If you point a telescope near the constellations of Leo and Virgo, you might be able to catch a glimpse of the galactic monster in question: the Umbrella Galaxy, formally called NGC 4651.
This spiral galaxy — a twin of the Milky Way — is eating a smaller galaxy, and it gets its whimsical nickname from the wispy "parasol" that surrounds it.
When scientists discovered this umbrella in the 1950s, they interpreted it as a dwarf galaxy companion to the bigger galaxy. But recent research has suggested this parasol might actually be made up of crumbs from a leftover meal.
Astronomers have shown that our own Milky Way has fattened up by acquiring stars from other, smaller galaxies. They've found streams of star crumbs emanating from the nearby Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, which is being engulfed by the Milky Way.
What's more, a study in 2010 that looked at eight spiral galaxies, including the Umbrella Galaxy, found that six of them had signs of mergers: shells, clouds and arcs of tidal debris.
Researchers led by Caroline Foster of the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) have been studying the Umbrella Galaxy, and they learned that its distinctive arc is made up of the crumbs from a single dinner, rather than a series of meals.
"Through new techniques we have been able to measure the movements of the stars in the very distant, very faint, stellar stream in the Umbrella," Foster explained in a statement from the AAO. "This allows us to reconstruct the history of the system, which we couldn't before."
The astronomers used observations from the Subaru and Keck telescopes in Hawaii, and they tracked the movement of the stars in the stream by looking at globular clusters, planetary nebulae and patches of hydrogen gas in the galaxy. (Its distance from Earth is not well established, but the researchers in the study estimated that it is 62 million light-years away.)
The study, which has been accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, is free to read online at the preprint service arxiv.
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