Electronic Skin Patch Could Treat Diseases
Donghee Son and Jongha Lee
The memory device can be bent and twisted, it works when stretched to 125 percent of its original length and works well even after 1000 stretching cycles.
Sept. 27, 2011 --
In the popular "Deus Ex" video game series, nanotechnology can turn an average government agent into a bionic superman. In fact, nanotech augmentations in the human body aren't just fun and games. Real-life applications will most likely become reality a lot sooner than you think. In 2007, the world's first online inventory of nanotech products, Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, found that nearly 500 products, including food, clothing and cosmetics, employed nanotechnology. In this slide show, explore how nanotech can make you stronger, tap into your brain and more.
WATCH: NANOTECH REWARDS
If you're too busy to make it to the gym, nanotechnology could be a way to get fit without having to spend hours toiling away on machines. In fact, technology can take you a lot further than any free-weight or cardio regimen. In 2006, researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas reported in the journal Science that they had created alcohol- and hydrogen-fueled artificial muscles 100 times stronger and capable of 100 times more work than natural muscles. Functioning as both muscles and fuel cells, the technology has a range of applications from artificial limbs to autonomous robots.
SCIENCE CHANNEL: Take the Nanotechnology Quiz
If nanotechnology can make you stronger, could it also make you smarter? Scientists aren't quite there yet, but nanotechnology applied to brain implants could treat a range of conditions from deafness to blindness to Parkinson's disease and more, according to biomedical engineers from the University of Michigan. Nanotechnology could also be used to tap into the mind, and read and write information directly into the brain. In an unusual twist, the research was undertaken by telecommunications engineers at Nippon Telegraph and Telephone.
University of Washington
Contact lenses with visual displays may seem like the kind of technology you only see in a movie. But researchers at the University of Washington have started laying the groundwork by building a contact lens with internal circuitry. Using wires made of metal only a few nanometers thick, the technology is placed in a contact lens rather than an implant, making use of the bionic eye much easier. In this photo, the contact lens has been affixed to a rabbit. The researchers believe they would quickly be able to introduce a visual display, but it wouldn't be more than a few pixels in the near future.
Tired of having to find an electrical outlet or a USB cable every time you need to charge your cell phone? With nanotechnology, you can become a walking battery. Using nanowires to recover wasted heat energy from the body, which is then converted into electrical power, researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California at Berkeley have developed an entirely means of charging personal electronics. The same technology could be used to convert heat from other sources into electrical energy. As reported in the journal Nature, approximately 15 trillion watts of heat energy produced by engine and steam- and gas-powered turbines is lost to the environment.
Recovering from injuries to skin and muscle tissue can take weeks. Trauma to the brain or central nervous system can be irreversible. But with nanomedicine, a nanoparticle-infused hydrogel could heal brain and bone injuries by creating new blood vessels and encouraging stem cells to replace dead tissue. Developed by scientists from Clemson University, the gel still needs several more years of animal testing before human trials can begin. Injuries involving nerve damage or the spinal cord are among the most difficult to treat. But nanotechnology could open the door to rebuilding damaged nerve cells. Although regenerating nerve cells is the ultimate goal, researchers have so far been able to develop the scaffolding necessary to rebuild nerves following damage. The technique, a nanotechnology-infused stem cell treatment developed by David Nisbet of Monash University, could also aid in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Besides treating immediate injury, researchers are also exploring uses of nanotechnology to fight the effects of aging and to promote longer life. By using a breakthrough nanogel to stimulate stem cells, Northwestern University scientists found that they can regenerate lost cartilage in joints. As adults age, they start to lose their cartilege, a painful condition for which there is little effective treatment. A separate study undertaken by researchers at the University of Central Florida (UCF) found that using an industrial nanomaterial, they can triple or even quadruple the lives of brain cells. This could lead people "live longer and with fewer age-related health problems," according to a UCF press release about the study.
With more than an estimated 1.5 million new cancer patients this year alone, it's no surprise that one of the more promising applications of nanotechnology is in the detection, monitoring and treatment of various forms of cancer. From targeted drug delivery to direct attacks of "nanoworms" on tumor growths, researchers working within the field of nanomedicine are using the technology to attack cancer cells with unprecedented precision.
WATCH: NANOTECH RISKS
Researchers have made an electronic skin patch that can monitor muscle movement, store the data it collects and use stored data patterns to decide when to deliver medicine through the skin. The patch could be useful for monitoring and treating Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy, its creators say.
Wearable devices that continuously monitor physiological cues can help doctors understand and treat diseases such as epilepsy, heart failure and Parkinson’s. A few research groups have been trying to develop discreet health monitoring devices based on flexible, stretchable electronics that can be plastered on the skin, heart or brain.
But the new system is the first that can store data and deliver drugs, says Dae-Hyeong Kim, a chemical and biological engineering professor at Seoul National University and one of the device’s creators. In the "closed-loop feedback system," says Kim, the stored data is used for statistical pattern analysis, which helps to track symptoms and drug response. "For more quantitative tracking of progression of symptoms and responses to medications, wearable healthcare devices that monitor important cues, store recorded data, and deliver feedback therapeutic agents via the human skin in a controlled way are highly required," he says.
Kim and his collaborators at the University of Texas at Austin and wearable health-monitoring device-maker MC10 integrated the sensors, memory and drug-delivery components, all made of nanomaterials, onto a stretchable polymer substrate that is soft and flexible like human skin. They reported their design in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
On the topside of the skin-like polymer patch, the research team printed three things: silicon nanomembrane strain sensor arrays; serpentine chromium-and-gold nanowires that act as both heaters and temperature sensors; and drug-loaded porous silica nanoparticles. The strain sensors detect motion such as Parkinson’s tremors. The heater controls the temperature of the polymer, which in turn controls the diffusion of the drugs into the skin (heat degrades the physical bonding between the nanoparticles and the drugs). The temperature sensors monitor skin temperature during drug delivery to prevent burns.
What’s most unique about the new electronic patch is the stretchable memory. Researchers have previously made resistive random access memory, an up-and-coming class of nonvolatile memory, using metal oxide nanomembranes. Those devices were stiff and brittle. Here, the researchers have made stretchable memory devices by sandwiching three layers of gold nanoparticles between ultra-thin titanium oxide nanomembranes printed on aluminum electrodes.
The memory device can be bent and twisted, it works when stretched to 125 percent of its original length, and works well even after 1000 stretching cycles.
As a simple demonstration, the researchers placed the wearable patch on the wrist. The motion sensors measured frequency of simulated tremors by sensing tension and compression of the muscle. The frequency was recorded and fed through a control circuit that recognizes characteristic patterns of Parkinson’s disease. This, in turn, triggered drug release.
Right now, the memory element requires a power supply and a data transmitter. The researchers say that they will need batteries or wireless power transmission and wireless communication in stretchable formats to make a truly wearable and wireless patch.
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