Hens lay 1.8 trillion eggs around the world, and 99 percent of those animals live in cramped cages where they never see sunlight, stew in their own waste and are fed massive amounts of food and antibiotics to boost their production.
Lovell et al., Current Biology
Eggs come in a multitude of colors and patterns, from subtle pastels to vivid bright hues. Now a new study, published in Current Biology, supports a centuries-old theory that shell variation, at least for some birds, helps to camouflage eggs.
The masters of egg disguise turn out to be Japanese quail. This photo amazingly features eggs just from this one species. Mother quails somehow learn the patterning of their own eggs and choose laying spots to hide them best.
“We currently do not know the mechanisms by which the (mother) bird learns its own egg patterns,” lead author P. George Lovell of Abertay University and the University of St. Andrews, told Discovery News.
Nevertheless, the ground-nesting birds often perfectly match the eggs to substrate, helping to prevent the precious contents from being some hungry predator’s dinner.
Lovell et al., Current Biology
Close-ups of the individual Japanese quail eggs really show how well the bird moms can match their eggs to the environment.
One of the first scientists to theorize that coloration and speckles evolved for camouflage against predators was Alfred Russel Wallace, who gained fame as Charles Darwin’s co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection.
Lovell et al., Current Biology
Yet another Japanese quail egg matches its environment, but the egg is not invisible to us. “Some have asked why they can still see the eggs if they are camouflaged,” Lovell said. “It’s important to remember that the eggs are less visible, not invisible…The photographs are taken quite close up to the egg, and a predator wouldn’t necessarily be that close. It would be scanning an area, rather than staring straight at the egg.”
Japanese quail themselves are brown and speckled, like their eggs. The bodies of many birds appear to match their eggs. A parent bird could then likely better shield the egg when resting upon it.
Speckles appear to be key to camouflage, at least for eggs.
Avian expert Innes Cuthill of the University of Bristol’s School of Biological Sciences, told Discovery News, “Alfred Russel Wallace concluded that the brown and speckled colors of many eggs had evolved as camouflage against nest predators and that the ancestral color of white only persisted in species whose eggs were laid in well-protected cavities, were covered by nest material or, in birds such as ostriches, could be defended by their parents.”
Brown with speckles is just one egg color/pattern combo, as these reed warbler eggs reveal. Their greenish hue, set off by the green leaves surrounding the nest, would make them less visible to predators scanning the area from a distance.
This nest also includes a, slightly larger, common cuckoo egg. Demonstrating another bit of bird trickery, common cuckoo mothers frequently match the appearance of their eggs to those of reed warblers, which wind up caring for the hatchlings.
Sometimes avian parents enjoy the best of both worlds: camouflage for their eggs as well as fooling other birds. Cuckoo finches can be deadbeat parents, matching their eggs (seen in the inner circle) to those of the tawny-flanked prinia (outer circle). The prinia parents are sometimes fooled into caring for the cuckoo finch eggs and later hatchlings.
A mother cowbird must have worked hard to find this perfect spot for her eggs. “Interestingly, all birds seem more concerned in minimizing the mismatch between nest and the darker speckles on their eggs than the mismatch between nest and the underlying, predominant egg color, but particularly so for birds with more dark speckling,” Cuthill said.
Lovell and his team speculate that the dark and light markings serve as a disruptive camouflage, breaking up the outline of the otherwise revealing oval shape. That shape, for humans and countless other predators, serves as a visual signal for good eats.
This cockatiel, with its proud expression, has a right to boast. Its egg not only matches the mother bird’s coloration, but it also matches the environment. In the wild, a hunter would have a hard time finding such an egg.
By itself, the egg of a swan is just as visible as a bright white egg on a breakfast plate. Under the mother swan, however, the egg disappears.
Robert Ricker, NOAA/NOS/ORR
This Adelie penguin laid a speckled egg that matches its environment. The matching phenomenon could lead to a twist to the old riddle: Which came first, the chicken or the egg? In this case, the teaser could be: Which came first, the egg color and pattern, or the choice of nesting site?
An even more compelling mystery concerns a common sight in springtime—bright blue eggs in a robin’s nest. To human eyes, they are beautifully unmistakable. They stand out from both the nest and the parent birds, so why are they bright blue?
No one yet knows for sure. Biologists do know that pigment glands in the mother bird’s body deposit the blue coloration onto the eggs, so it must have a critical function. Perhaps the dark color camouflages the eggs when the eggs are at the bottom of a dark nest, or the blue might blend in with the sky for some viewers. Some researchers have even speculated that the striking color helps mother birds to find their own eggs.
For now, however, the case of the mysteriously blue robin’s egg has yet to be cracked.
Fake eggs made from plant materials could one day replace chicken eggs, one researcher says.
Though egg substitutes of various types have been around for decades, more scientific methods could finally produce new products that actually taste good, said Josh Tetrick here on Sunday (May 19) at this year's Maker Faire Bay Area, a two-day celebration of DIY science, technology and engineering.
Admittedly, he has a dog in the fight: Tetrick is the CEO of Hampton Creek Foods, a company based in San Francisco, Calif., that is developing plant-based egg substitutes. [Maker Faire Bay Area 2013 (Photos)]
Every year, hens lay 1.8 trillion eggs around the world, and 99 percent of these hens live in cramped cages where they never see sunlight, stew in their own waste, and are fed massive amounts of food and antibiotics to boost their production and keep them from becoming ill, Tetrick said.
"This system is crying out for just a little bit of innovation," he said.
The production of eggs and other livestock is also environmentally taxing, he said. For instance, livestock consume more food than it would take to feed the 1.3 billion people who go to bed hungry every night, and are responsible for 51 percent of greenhouse gas emissions due to flatulence and land needed to produce their food, he said.
For centuries, people have come up with egg and meat alternatives, with decidedly mixed results. But only 8 percent of plant species have been explored for food alternatives, so there could be many others that would work to replace eggs. Venture capitalists are optimistic as well: Many are betting on healthy food startups, including companies searching for meat and egg replacements, according to Tetrick.
To get better results, Tetrick's company is deconstructing the egg systematically.
For instance, eggs have some amazing properties, such as the ability to enable oil and water-based foods to mix permanently. (This emulsifying property is what makes mayonnaise stay creamy.) So the company is analyzing hundreds of different plant-based compounds to determine how well they emulsify.
To replace eggs in baked goods, the scientists are making hundreds of "microcakes" with candidate replacements in test tubes; they are also analyzing the protein content and molecular weight of many different compounds to make sure they can replace the nutritional benefits of eggs.
So far, the company has created a powdered egg product for baked goods. It was convincing enough that billionaire Bill Gates tried a muffin (not at Maker Faire) and couldn't tell the difference.
Their next step may be more challenging: making a satisfying scrambled egg. On that front, they've found a plant from Asia that coagulates, or turns solid, with heat, the process that scrambles the eggs.
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