Butterflies Inspire Ultra-Waterproof Materials
Adam Paxson, Kyle Hounsell, Jim Bales, James Bird, Kripa Varanasi
The wings of the Morpho butterfly contain ridges that repel water droplets, rendering the surface waterproof.
Dr. Jan Michels, Christian-Albrechts-Universi
It might sound a bit cramped, but there's an entire world of organisms that can call a drop of water their home. And, up close, they look practically out-of-this-world. Each year, the Nikon Small World competition sets out to collect some of the best microphotography. Take a look at some of this year's most stunning images of creatures that live in water. This photo from Dr. Jan Michels of Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel in Kiel, Germany shows Temora longicornis, a marine copepod, from its ventral view at 10 times magnification.
SEE MORE PHOTOS: It's a Nikon Small World After All
Frank Fox, Fachhochschule Trier/Nikon Small W
This microphotograph shows the diatom Melosira moniliformis at 320 times its size.
Jonathan Franks, University of Pittsburgh/Nik
This algae biofilm photographed up-close makes what's usually referred to as "pond scum" look like art.
Michael Shribak and Dr. Irina Arkhipova, Mari
This Philodina roseola rotifer was alive and well when this microphotograph was taken.
Dr. Ralf Wagner/Nikon Small World
This microphoto shows a water flea flanked by green algae.
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Charles Krebs Photography/Nikon Small World
Warfare in a water droplet! This microphoto shows a Hydra capturing a water flea at 40-times magnification.
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Dr. John H. Brackenbury, University of Cambri
One of the ultimate human pests -- the mosquito -- begins life as larvae, here shown suspended in a single droplet of water.
Gerd A. Guenther/Nikon Small World
Ever wonder what sex between two freshwater ciliates looks like magnified at 630 times its actual size? Now you know!
Joan Rohl, Institute for Biochemistry and Bio
This freshwater water flea is shown at 100 times its actual size.
Wolfgang Bettighofer/Nikon Small World
Closterium lunula, a kind of green alga, is shown here. This particular specimen came from a bog pond, according to the photographer.
John Gaynes, University of Utah/Nikon Small W
While it may resemble a visitor from outer space, this is what a zebrafish embryo looks like under a microscope, three days after being fertilized.
Dr. Carlos Alberto Muñoz, University of Puer
This microscopic crustacean appears yellowish-orange because it is mounted in Canada Balsam with crystals and other artifacts.
A new way of texturing surfaces could make certain materials ultra-waterproof.
The new technique takes advantage of the fact that rougher, uneven textures cause water droplets to bounce off of them more quickly than smooth surface. And the less time water stays in contact with a surface, the drier that material stays. The new method could be used for many applications, including waterproof clothing and sports gear, as well as anti-icing tech for airplane wings.
It was developed by Kripa Varanasi, a mechanical engineer at MIT, and his colleagues, who used a high-speed camera to film a silicone wafer with a highly water-repellent coating being sprayed with water.
The scientists found that droplets that hit the surface evenly and then spread out symmetrically actually spent more time in contact with the surface than those that hit the surface unevenly.
So, the researchers created a new textured surface with small ridges that broke up the drops unevenly. The resulting smaller drops took less time spreading out on the surface before bouncing off of it. [Video: Hydrophobic Sand Underwater]
But it turns out the scientists weren't the first to discover this waterproofing strategy; nature had beaten them to it.
"We discovered that both the wings of the Morpho butterfly (Morpho didius) and the leaves of the nasturtium plant (Tropaeolum majus L.) have multiple superhydrophobic ridges, or veins, on a similar scale to our macro-textured surfaces," the authors write in the research article describing the new technique today (Nov. 20) in the journal Nature.
The new materials could have multiple applications. In addition to waterproofing sporting gear and clothing, the new approach could be used for keeping airplane wings from becoming icy and improving the aerodynamics of minuscule robots flying in the rain.
"We expect that this approach could be extended to surfaces exposed to freezing rain to prevent icing," the researchers write.
That's because the freezing of raindrops onto a surface takes time, so reducing the contact time between the surface and the rain could reduce frost accumulation.
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