Carnegie Mellon University via Youtube
Thousands of video trajectories of two people tossing a volleyball are captured by an array of more than 500 video cameras arranged on the inside walls of a geodesic dome.
In the consumer and tech markets, 3-D printing is used to build cars, robots, footwear, rockets, gun and just about anything else you can imagine. But in the world of art, visual artists are just beginning to explore the creative ways to use 3-D printers to expand their work. A painter’s canvas, one dimensional until now, suddenly can show depth and perspective, while a sculptor’s own laser-scanned body can become the working model for 3-D printed works.
Reclining Figure by Sophie Kahn
Way back in 2003, while studying at a university in Melbourne, Sophie Kahn observed a group of architects using 3-D scanning and printing. “I started using the scanner on my own body in the lab, and to me it was very reminiscent of art history and classical sculpture and indicative of the fragmentation and decay of ancient art,” Kahn said. “So I am interested in the melding of ancient and futuristic art.”
Here, she combines 3-D laser scanning and 3-D printing with ancient bronze casting techniques to achieve a timeless, deconstructed look.
Kahn says she purposefully uses a 3-D model in a way that will generate errors and glitches in the final printing process.
“I use motion of the body because the scanner does not handle a moving breathing body very well. It misunderstands that, so you get multiple overlapping figures,” she said. “I sculpt that, and it’s very labor intensive. I spend a couple of months on each piece, using digital sculpting software. When I’m happy with it, I send it out to the printer."
Kahn’s work can be seen at sophiekahn.net, and in an upcoming exhibit at Connecticut College, Oct. 28 to Dec. 6, 2013.
Protocolonization of Commons
Artist Shane Hope sits at the intersection of science and technology via molecular nanotechnology, the science of modifying objects at the atomic or molecular level. “My goal is to glean abnormalities that aesthetically accentuate messy molecular modeling,” he said. “I've hand-hobbled together a bunch of bots (3-D printers) from scratch and I employ them more like painting assistants.”
Hope, whose work will be shown Oct. 18 to Feb. 2, 2014 at San Francisco’s Yerba Buena Center for the Arts “Dissident Futures” exhibition, was trained as a painter. Although he has no formal computer science training, he uses open-source nano molecular design software to create his complex designs and uses several 3-D printers in his studio. Each piece uses thousands of 3D-printed models.
In the heart of a 150-acre redwood forest, architect Bryan Allen and art practice psychologist Stephanie Smith installed Echoviren, a 10x10x8-foot, 3D-printed translucent enclosure. “We used seven printers running 24 hours a day producing essentially 500 individual pieces,” Allen told DNews. “We used run-of-the-mill 3-D desktop printers. The 3-D printer compresses the time from conception of an idea to its fruition and building. You use the same tool to evaluate your design, to produce prototypes and to produce the final design.”
The artists’ goal was to create a space in the forest influenced by the environment and coastal redwoods.
“For us, it really democratizes the production of large scale work,” Allen said. The project will decompose naturally within 40 to 50 years.
Frank Stella can safely be called a pioneer in the use of 3-D printing for art, since he first started experimenting with it in the mid 1990s. Stella gained fame in the 1950s with geometrics in nature paintings.
Stella starts with a handmade model, sometimes made from paper, which he scans and captures as a digital image. He then cuts and pastes from other existing models before manipulating and refining the image and sending to a 3-D printer.
Stella, whose work will be shown at the Museum of Art and Design in New York City from Oct. 16 to July 6, 2014, sometimes adds elements of wire or steel tubing for more texture and depth. “Stella sees the 3D-printed form as a canvas for him to apply paint,” said Ron Labaco, curator at the Museum of Arts and Design. “The works range from tabletop, about two and a half feet across, to larger free-standing or wall hangings that are as large as six or eight feet across. He works with some of the 3-D printing companies in Europe that have the largest printers.”
Fans who were surprised at the intricate artwork on Kanye West’s 2012 album, “Cruel Summer” can thank Parisian artist Hugo Arcier. Arcier, trained in digital filmmaking and 3-D graphic arts, creates original objects using 3-D printers. “Using 3-D printers probably blurs the line between art and design and some projects I do with 3D-printing technology can be considered more as design,” Arcier told DNews. “I’m excited about the link between art and science.”
Arcier, whose work will be on display at Show Off, the annual Paris art fair, form Oct. 21-23, says artists have a long history of incorporating technology into their work. He points to Andy Warhol’s use of screen printing as an example.
“3-D printing is a technology that evolves very quickly so I am paying close attention to it,” Arcier said. “There are more and more materials available. I am doing some tests now with rubber material. I think it can be used very creatively. I also look forward to the possibility of printing bigger objects, since the size is really a limitation now."
Those thrilling moments when a soccer player kicks home the winning goal in the World Cup final or Beyonce debuts new dance choreography in concert might someday be recreated in full 3-D motion down to the smallest piece of confetti and played back from almost any angle.
Such a possibility comes from a new motion-capture technique capable of reconstructing scenes captured by more than 500 video cameras mounted inside a two-story geodesic dome.
The new technique comes from Carnegie Mellon University researchers working in the Panoptic Studio -- a video lab with a camera system capable of capturing 100,000 different points in motion at any time.
Researchers developed a technique that uses consistent motion patterns as a cue for identifying and tracking certain points on an object captured by cameras. And it all works without the need for physical markers, such as those used by Hollywood motion-capture systems to translate the acting performance of Andy Serkis into the movements of the ape leader Caesar in the newest "Planet of the Apes" films.
"At some point, extra camera views just become 'noise,'" said Hanbyul Joo, a Ph.D. student in the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, in apress release. "To fully leverage hundreds of cameras, we need to figure out which cameras can see each target point at any given time."
The camera system uses the motion patterns to figure out which of the Panopticon's 480 video cameras -- plus an additional 30 high-definition video cameras -- arrayed around the geodesic dome have the best views of a particular moving object. If many cameras are tracking a particular point on a person's body as moving to the right, a camera that detects motion moving in the opposite direction is likely picking up another object or can't see that particular point from its angle.
The system can then figure out which video feeds to use or ignore to reconstruct the 3-D motion of that particular point. Such technology could prove a huge help on feature film sets.
Current motion-capture systems used by Hollywood films such as "Dawn of the Planet of the Apes" also use an array of many cameras, but specifically track certain markers placed on the bodies of actors. Carnegie Mellon's system has no need for using such markers, which could enable future Hollywood productions to create both digital actors and scenes.
Other researchers have shown that they can reconstruct 3-D still scenes based on using a large number of cameras, including the cameras of smartphones. But Carnegie Mellon's system has proven capable of reconstructing incredibly detailed, full-motion scenes such as a person tossing confetti in the air that tracks the individual confetti pieces as they get fed into a fan.
Joo and his colleagues also raised the possibility of a similar system harnessing the power of video cameras in spectators' phones at events such as concerts and sporting events. But that would depend on somehow getting permission to access everyone's personal devices.
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