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Into the Asylum
Diseases of the mind have always held a special place in the dark regions of our imagination. In this slideshow, we explore the history of how the lunatic asylum of ancient times became the psychiatric hospital of today, including how patients were treated before the advent of modern medicine. And though the treatment of patients who suffer from mental disorders has evolved considerably over the centuries, some of the stigma these people endure is very much the same.
The First Facilities
The first mental asylum can be traced back as early as the 5th century in the Middle East. Prior to that, families who had members suffering from mental health disorders just kept their ill relatives at home. Even after the advent of the mental asylum, it really wasn't until the 18th and 19th centuries that urbanization allowed for greater access to these facilities. A psychiatric hospital in Aleppo, Syria, that operated from the 14th century into the 20th century appears in this photo.
A Prison, Not a Hospital
Most sufferers of mental disorders throughout history have not been treated as patients, but rather as prisoners. This illustration depicts female mental patients chained up at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, France. Although the facility has since evolved into one of the largest hospital's in Europe, during the 18th century, the period this painting depicts, patient care wasn't high on the list of priorities for officials working at this facility.
Made in America
Psychiatric institutions first appeared in the United States during the Colonial era as a result of urbanization, according to the website of the U.S. Surgeon General. In this photo, Blackwell's Island Lunatic Asylum, built in New York at the beginning of the 19th century, was the first municipal mental hospital in the United States, according to the American Journal of Psychiatry.
A Jolt to the System
As mental health asylums gradually transformed into institutions that went from confining those with mental health disorders to treating them, psychiatrists began experimenting with different therapies for treating a range of diseases. Although drugs treating depression, anxiety, psychosis, or any number of different symptoms of a larger disorder are readily available today, early patients of the new psychological revolution did not have quite the range of options available to them. In this photo, a medical team preps a patient for electroconvulsive treatment, better known as shock therapy. Although the practice continues to this day in hospitals around the globe, its efficacy as a treatment for psychological disorders has long been questioned by the medical community.
A Surgical Solution?
The lobotomy is among one of the most brutal and infamous treatments for mental health conditions. The process involves a surgeon intentionally causing trauma to the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain that deals with behavior and personality among other functions. Ever since its invention in 1935, the treatment has sparked controversy over its effectiveness and sheer brutality. Many patients who underwent this procedure were left permanently incapacitated; some even died. In this photo taken in 1961, a prison official preps a convict to undergo a lobotomy.
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Hypnotism was another popular early form of psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Hypnotism predated psychological study, but was first described in clinical terms in the 19th century. It was employed as a diagnostic and treatment tool by some of the earliest pioneers of the field of psychology, including Sigmund Freud, who eventually fell out of favor with the practice. Even today, hypnotism is promoted with the promise of helping patients with sleep disorders, nicotine addiction, depression, and a whole range of diseases and conditions.
Not all treatments are as aggressive as electroconvulsive therapy. In this photo, a painting, the product of a patient's therapy, provides medical professionals with an insight into the patient's condition. Art therapy could also be a window through which patients along with their therapists can examine past traumas or challenges that they wouldn't have been able to approach otherwise.
An Abandoned Institution
As patient care became a higher priority for mental health professionals as opposed to simply corralling patients into a facility to segregate them from society, what were once called lunatic asylums gave way to psychiatric hospitals. An abandoned asylum, such as the one photographed here known as Northern State Hospital for the Insane, still conveys an eerie quality as though still haunted by the patients who used to be kept there.
A Modern Asylum
Not all more modern facilities treat their patients with quality care and a little empathy. In 1989 and 1990, photographer Claudio Edinger traveled to Juqueri Mental Hospital in Sao Paolo State, Brazil, where his visited his grandmother, a once lively woman who had been transformed by Alzheimer's Disease. What Edinger witnessed at the facility was a "chaotic environment" with appalling conditions -- a place where many patients walked around naked in their own filth. Worse, Juqueri is the largest psychiatric facility in Latin America.
A new discovery could be the secret to a cure for Alzheimer’s.
A team at Stanford University discovered that when a class of brain cells, called microglia, stop doing their jobs, Alzheimer's happens.
Microglia make up 10-15 percent of all brain cells. They're a combination of crime fighters and garbage collectors: they search out and eat up any bad things they find in the brain, from bacteria to viruses to so-called A-Beta, which can form the gummy protein deposits that cause Alzheimer's.
"Microglia are the brain's beat cops," said Dr. Katrin Andreasson, professor of neurology and neurological sciences and the study's senior author, in a press release. "Our experiments show that keeping them on the right track counters memory loss and preserves healthy brain physiology."
Sometimes, a single tiny molecule, a protein called EP2, that lives on microglia goes haywire, and that's where the trouble starts. The misbehaving molecule tells the microglia to stop clearing out A-Beta and plaque starts to form in the brain -- beginning the process of Alzheimer's.
"The microglia are supposed to be, from the get-go, constantly clearing A-beta, as well as keeping a lid on inflammation," Andreasson said. "If they lose their ability to function, things get out of control. A-beta builds up in the brain, inducing toxic inflammation."
By simply blocking the actions of that EP2 molecule, Alzheimer's was reversed in mice.
The study was published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Analyzing the data, the researchers found evidence that drugs like aspirin might help stave off Alzheimer's, though dosages would have to start well before the onset of symptoms.
"Once you have any whiff of memory loss, these drugs have no effect," she said.
Plus, long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) also carries risks, such as kidney damage and stomach problems. Ideally, the researchers said, a targeted drug would block that malfunctioning EP2 molecule on the back of microglia and reverse memory loss.