City of Edinburgh Council
How the pirate may have looked. This facial reconstruction by Hayley Fisher shows what the pirate may have looked like.
May 20, 2011 --
Captain Jack Sparrow may rule the high seas this weekend with "Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides," but long before this famous fictional pirate plundered the box office, other notable buccaneers, privateers, scoundrels and rapscallions controlled the seven seas. Explore some of the most famous pirates ever to sail the Caribbean in this slideshow -- or else we'll make you walk the plank.
Blackbeard, born Edward Teach, is not only the principle antagonist in "Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides." He's also one of the most legendary pirates ever to fly the Jolly Roger. After spending the early days of his pirating career on the crew of Benjamin Hornigold, a privateer captain based out of New Providence, Teach rose through the ranks and eventually was given his own ship, a 300-ton frigate with 40 guns that he would christen Queen Anne's Revenge. The name Blackbeard came from Teach's trademark long, black beard, within which he would tie several ribbons of different colors. He also wore three pairs of pistols across his chest in addition to the sword and small blades he kept as his side. As the legend of Blackbeard grew and he continued to capture ships in the Caribbean, so did Blackbeard's wealth. Eventually Blackbeard even tried to retire from his pirating ways after receiving a pardon, selling his booty, abandoning his crew and settling in the American colonies. Even in retirement, however, Blackbeard couldn't give up being a pirate and soon fell, once again, into the habit of plundering ships. Eventually, the then-Governor of Virginia, Alexander Spotswood, commissioned Lieutenant Robert Maynard, an experienced naval commander, to capture or kill Blackbeard. Since Blackbeard had lost his flagship, Queen Anne's Revenge, prior to the battle, the pirate was short on firepower and men. The battle, which resulted in hand-to-hand combat between the navy and Blackbeard's men, included a fight between the two captains. Maynard eventually prevailed, but Blackbeard didn't go down easy. After he died, more than 20 wounds from gunshots and swords were found on his body. With victory assured, Maynard placed Blackbeard's head at the bow of his ship as a trophy and warning to other would-be pirates.
Known for his bravery and leadership, Henry Morgan was perhaps the most famous buccaneer of all time. Morgan was born in Wales in 1635, but his ambition took him to Jamaica as a young man to seek fame and fortune. As a privateer and a captain with the English, he built his wealth, amassed an army and grew his reputation in campaigns against the Spanish and Dutch by capturing enemy ships and sacking their towns. Morgan retired peacefully and died in 1688, just as the golden of age piracy had begun to sunset.
Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Black Bart, was only a pirate for a little more than three years, but he would leave his mark as one of the most successful pirates in history, having captured almost 500 ships during his career. Black Bart became known for his fearlessness, often successfully attacking ships much larger than his own. Even as navies started to crack down toward the end of the Golden Age of Piracy, Black Bart's gunboats were left unchallenged. Roberts was also known as a ruthless pirate. In one case, when the captain of a slave ship refused to pay a ransom, Roberts set fire to the ship with all of the slaves still inside. Black Bart did have his quirks as well. He was known for being an impeccable dresser, and, as a religious man, refused to attack on Sundays. In 1722, Roberts died during a battle with the HMS Swallow after getting hit by grapeshot during a broadside attack.
William "Captain" Kidd
Perhaps the most unlucky captain in the history of piracy, William "Captain" Kidd set to be a privateer, but ended up becoming a pirate. In fact, Kidd intended to hunt pirates ferociously after being commissioned to do so by Richard Coote, the governor of New York and Massachusetts. Shortly after Kidd set forth on his mission, a third of his crew succumbed to cholera. His ship also sprang numerous leaks. Early efforts to attack enemy ships failed. Even worse, Kidd didn't encounter any pirates. Kidd and his crew became desperate and violence within the crew was rampant. Kidd killed his own gunner, William Moore. The act held quiet what had been a mutinous crew. In January 1698, Kidd captured a ship belonging to British East India Company, which was loaded with gold, silver, silks and other valuables. Since Kidd was a privateer for the British, this attack was considered an act of piracy. (Kidd originally believed the vessel sailed under the French crown.) After capturing the ship, however, legends began to surface about where Kidd had hidden his treasure, as depicted in this illustration. When Kidd came ashore to New York City, he learned he had been declared a pirate. Kidd was arrested in Boston after traveling to the city with the false promise of clemency for his crimes. Kidd was convicted on one count of murder and five counts of piracy and sentenced to hang on May 23, 1701.
A hero to the English and a scourge to the Spanish, Sir Francis Drake was perhaps the most powerful pirate in history. At the end of his career he answered only to Charles Howard and Queen Elizabeth I, who is seen knighting Drake in this illustration. A skilled sailor and navigator, Drake attacked Spanish settlements, raided Spanish ports and captured galleons laden with gold. The Spanish even offered a rich reward for anyone who would capture or kill Drake, the equivalent of over $6 million today. Drake is also known as the first Englishman ever to circumnavigate the globe, which he completed in 1580.
Anne Bonny and Mary Read
Whoever said piracy was just a man's game? Anne Bonny and Mary Read were two pirates who proved they could more than hold their own in a profession dominated by men. Bonny first entered piracy after becoming romantically involved with Captain John "Calico Jack" Rackham, who would become famous for having these two notorious women serve under his command. After leaving her husband and setting sail with Rackham, Bonny became famous for her success as a pirate and her effectiveness in combat even though she didn't command a ship. All her life, Mary Read acted and was treated like a man. In 1720, she joined Bonny and Rackham as a pirate and despite the brevity of the union, the three would forever be linked in history. In the fall of that same year, Rackham and his crew, including Bonny and Read, were captured. During his trial, Bonny was asked to testify on Rackham's behalf when she uttered the famous line: "If he had fought like a man, he need not have been hanged like a dog." Rackham was executed, and Bonny and Read were due to follow, but they both claimed that they were pregnant and a temporary stay was imposed on their executions. Read died of complications from a fever related to childbirth. Nothing is known about what happened to Bonny after she escaped execution.
Was Jean Lafitte an American hero or a savage criminal? It seems like he was a little bit of both. On the one hand, Lafitte avoided American ships throughout much of his career as a pirate, instead preying on English and Spanish vessels that ventured into the Gulf of Mexico. He also successfully defended the city of New Orleans in the War of 1812 alongside Andrew Jackson. On the other hand, he was a smuggler and a pirate who stole a small fortune over his career (although he became known for treating enemy captives well). Although his reputation is up for debate, Lafitte's legacy is undoubtedly the rumors of buried treasure that he left behind throughout Louisiana -- a fortune that was sought after long after he died around 200 years ago.
The French buccaneer Francois L'Ollonais, born Jean-David Neu, may be the most bloodthirsty pirate on this list. L'Ollonais was particularly notorious for the manner in which he treated his prisoners. In one account of his ruthlessness during the sacking of Maracaibo, Venezuela (a town he had laid to waste and held for a ransom of gold, silver, gems and slaves), L'Ollonais cut out the heart of one of his Spanish captives and started taking bites out of it in front of his other prisoners, assuring them that he would kill and eat them all if he didn't get the information he wanted. Ironically, some months after this incident, his ship ran aground off the Las Petras Islands, where he was killed -- and possibly eaten -- by a native tribe.
Stede Bonnet might be known as the baddest pirate captain of them all. By baddest, we're not talking about his ruthlessness, but rather his sheer incompetence. Unlike other privateers and buccaneers whose stories document a tale of rags to riches, Bonnet started out as an educated, wealthy plantation owner before turning to piracy, despite the lack of sailing experience, when he was middle-aged. Although Bonnet himself wasn't the most capable leader, he did have an amicable relationship with Blackbeard -- which lasted until Blackbeard realized Bonnet was incapable and took over Bonnet's ship, the Revenge. In 1718, a little more than one year after he decided to take up piracy, Bonnet was captured and executed.
Human remains unearthed last year under a school playground in Edinburgh, UK do not belong to a Bronze Age individual, as previously thought, but to a 16th-century pirate who was executed nearby, the City of Edinburgh Council said.
The skeleton was found during survey work for an extension at the city’s oldest working primary school, located near Newhaven harbor.
“Workers expected to find remains of the original harbor and shipbuilding but instead uncovered human bones,” the City of Edinburgh Council said in a statement.
Some 4,000-year-old shards of pottery found near the poorly preserved remains led archaeologists to believe the remains were from the Bronze Age.
But recent radiocarbon dating by experts at AOC Archaeology indicates the skeleton was from the 16th or 17th centuries.
“Thanks to carbon dating techniques, archaeologists now know that the skeleton was likely to have been a murder victim — and quite possibly a pirate,” Councillor Richard Lewis, Culture Convener for the City of Edinburgh Council, said.
A a gallows-type structure called a gibbet, commonly used to execute witches and pirates, stood on the edge of Newhaven dockyards 600 years ago.
Archaeologists believe the man, who was likely in his 50s, was hung on that device for piracy or other crimes and displayed in plain sight of ships to deter fellow pirates.
He was then buried in a shallow, unmarked grave.
Forensic artist Hayley Fisher, along with AOC Archaeology, created a facial reconstruction of the pirate’s skull.
The school’s headteacher, Laura Thompson, said the archaeologists will hold a special lesson about how they have used science to analyze the remains.
“The pupils think it’s fantastic that a skeleton was found deep underneath their playground,” Thompson said.