Ever since 1890, when the use of anesthetics and antiseptics made it unlikely for people to die getting a nose job, cosmetic plastic surgery has been part of the global culture. By the 1920s, plastic surgery grew ever more common, and became associated with vanity. New techniques developed during World War II helped further increase demand for -- and types of -- the elective surgeries.
The era of minimally-invasive techniques has marked a new generation of plastic surgery options, with 14.6 million cosmetic procedures performed in the United States in 2012, up 5 percent since 2011. Here are the current most popular cosmetic surgeries, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
Initially, cosmetic plastic surgery was not seen as a vanity procedure, said Emory University professor Sander Gilman, author of Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery.
"Jews in Germany had their noses reduced so they could get jobs," Gilman said. As such, it was equally common for men and women to undergo plastic surgery.
"By the end of the 19th century there's a common understanding in the West that you can transform yourself, you can move classes -- and you can get a new nose," Gilman said.
Ear pinbacks were also popular at the time, to correct "prominent ears."
By the 1920s, the world of cosmetic surgery had shifted. By then, the first textbook about facial cosmetic surgery was in circulation, called "The Correction of Featural Imperfections" by Charles Miller. Women sought face lifts for reasons associated with vanity, not employment.
"It becomes something we associate with the upper middle class," Gilman said.
Everything from ivory to rubber has been used to augment breasts since the beginning of the 20th century. Nothing worked well (one of the first experimental substances, paraffin, had particularly bad results, with breasts that grew hard and lumpy and high rates of infection) until the Dow Corning Corporation developed the first silicone breast implants in 1961. Even though breast augmentation dropped 7 percent from 2011, it's still the No. 1. plastic surgery in the U.S., with 286,000 procedures in the U.S. in 2012. (It's followed by nose reshaping, eyelid surgery, liposuction, and facelifts.)
"People who have had significant weight loss are coming to grips with dealing with [their bodies]," said surgeon David Reath, a member of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. "Whether they've lost weight through weight reduction surgery or diet and exercise, if they were overweight for a long period, the
skin hangs around, and it’s very demoralizing. They're looking for a solution."
One solution appears to be a procedure called an upper arm lift, which involves either liposuction or brachioplasty, a surgery that removes loose skin is removed from the back of the arms.
Plus, "anytime we start talking about arms the image of the buff First Lady comes into mind," Reath said.
"This is up in every age group of men," Reath said. "I think it's because there’s a growing awareness that there is a solution to something that's extra troubling to men of all ages. It can have a tremendous psychological effect on young men going through puberty."
In fact, the number of men having cosmetic procedures in general has increased so dramatically that Gilman thinks it will once again even out to match the rate of women who undergo plastic surgery.
New minimally invasive and cheaper procedures such as Botox and other injectable fillers took off when the economy took a downturn, Reath said.
"You could take less time off from work [to recover]; year after year it has continued to grow," he said.
In fact, the popularity of such procedures is growing so fast that Gilman believes there will come a point in the next 10 years or so where people will wonder why you didn't have a cosmetic procedure if you have sagging skin under your jaw or lines around your eyes.
"It's becoming the standard," he said.
A team of oral surgeons reportedly removed 232 teeth from the mouth of a 17-year-old boy in India on July 21. The boy was diagnosed with a condition called complex composite odontoma, a rare type of tumor that affects the jaw or gums, his doctors said.
Ashik Gavai was admitted to JJ Hospital in Mumbai with swelling in his right jaw, Dr. Sunanda Dhiware, head of the hospital's dental department, told BBC News.
The boy had been experiencing discomfort from the swelling for 18 months, Dhiware said. His father, Suresh Gavai, told the Mumbai Mirror that his son began complaining of severe pain a month ago.
In people with complex composite odontoma, a tumor grows in the jaw and contains tooth-like structures, as well as blobs of enamel and dentin, the tissues that make up teeth.
"Once we opened [the tumor], little pearl-like teeth started coming out, one-by-one," Dhiware told the BBC. "Initially, we were collecting them, they were really like small white pearls. But then we started to get tired. We counted 232 teeth."
However, these pearl-like objects, aren't really teeth in the truest sense of the word, according to Dr. J. David Johnson an associate professor at the University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine and spokesperson for the American Dental Association. [16 Oddest Medical Cases]
"Some people call them 'denticals' or 'toothlets.' They're not really true teeth because, if they were to erupt, there would be no periodontal ligament or root structure, and they're always deformed," Johnson said.
Although these malformed teeth don't typically cause symptoms, he said they can lead to problems and do need to be removed, he told Live Science.
In the case of Ashik Gavai, the toothlets did seem to be causing some trouble, however.
"If they're growing into an area where there are nerves, that can generate some pain. Sometimes infections will form in association with them, and that can generate pain as well," Johnson said.
Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors, comprising about 22 percent of all of this kind of tumor diagnosed by dentists and oral surgeons. Although it isn’t clear exactly why these growths form, trauma, infection and possibly growth pressure may be responsible, Johnson said.
After the teeth are removed surgically, the tumor isn’t likely to return, he said. And for Gavai, now that the tumor is gone, the 28 teeth that remain in his mouth will likely be healthier.
"Typically we recommend the removal of the odontoma so it doesn’t affect the health of the adjacent teeth or interfere with the eruption of the other normal teeth," Johnson said.
Although Johnson said he has personally never seen an odontoma as large as the one described in this particular case, he did not express doubt that such a massive tumor could form. He said that, like Gavai, most of the patients he sees with odontomas are teenagers, with the average age for the condition being 14. Males are slightly more likely to develop these growths than females, he said.
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