200-Year-Old Douche Found Under New York's City Hall
Chrysalis Archaeological Consultants
This vaginal syringe was unearthed at New York's City Hall. Its moving parts are separated in this picture.
Are men inherently better than women are at some skills, and vice versa? Though we tend to think otherwise -- and there are always notable exceptions -- scientific research frequently concludes that men and women excel in different areas.
So what about nature versus nurture? As Diane Halpern, a professor of psychology at Claremont McKenna College, said during the British Psychological Society Annual Conference last year: "We do socialize our boys and girls differently, but the contribution of biology is not zero."
Men are better at judging person’s size based on their voice
A study in the latest Biology Letters holds that "men are better than women at acoustic size judgments." This means that men have an enhanced ability to determine a person's size based on the sound of his or her voice, according to Benjamin Charlton and colleagues from the University of Sussex. The findings, conclude the authors, "lend support to the idea that acoustic size normalization, a crucial prerequisite for speech perception, may have been sexually selected through male competition."
Men have better spatial awareness
Men possess a stronger ability to think of objects in three dimensions, helping with navigation, which was also discussed during the British Psychological Society Annual Conference. Even 3-month-old infants exhibit the sex-based behavioral difference. It could be that hunting, competitive battles and other activities conducted in the past helped to lock the skill into males.
Ingrid Taylar, Flickr
Women are better at locating specific items
Men often may have better spatial awareness than women do, but women are "better at remembering where things are," Halpern said. As a result, women are more likely to navigate using landmarks. While both men and women can therefore find their way to places with about equal skill, women might have an edge, since they could likely find things like missing car keys and maps first.
Maxwell GS, Wikimedia Commons
Women are better at worrying
Women produce only about half as much serotonin -- a neurotransmitter linked to depression -- as men do and they have fewer transporters to recycle it, according to Karolinska Institute research. As a result, women tend to worry more. That’s not always a bad thing, as women might then possess an enhanced ability to foresee problems and plan how to handle them.
Women detect colors better than men do
Women can detect subtle variations in color that men fail to identify, such as noting certain off-white colors versus white, Israel Abramov of CUNY’s Brooklyn College, determined a few months ago. It could be that women -- acting as gatherers -- developed improved color detection while searching for edibles. Abramov suspects that sex hormones are behind the differences, given that male sex hormones can alter development in the visual cortex.
Men handle lack of sleep better than women do
A Duke University study found that men could tolerate sleep deprivation more than women could. This is either good or bad news for men, as sleep is involved in brain repair, when the brain sorts out memories and other information acquired throughout the day.
We are evenly matched at multitasking
Some studies have found that men are better at multi-tasking, while others have determined just the opposite. When compiled, the data so far suggests that our multitasking skills could be evenly matched.
As we age, we also tend to lose, at about the same rate, our ability to handle more than one activity at once. Older men and women exhibit more difficulty in switching between tasks at the level of brain networks, according to a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Men are better at detecting infidelity
Men appear to be better at reading subtle vocal, visual, scent and other cues indicating their partner's fidelity, concludes a study published in the journal Human Nature. The downside, said co-author Paul Andrews of Virginia Commonwealth University, is that that these cues aren’t always accurate, and men are more likely than women to falsely suspect cheating.
Yet another study on cheating, published in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, found that men are more upset by sexual infidelity, and while women are more upset by emotional infidelity. Women, it should be mentioned, outperform men when identifying emotions, according to a study in the journal Neuropsychologia.
We are evenly matched in terms of intelligence
Men tend to be larger and, as a result, tend to have bigger brains. Size, however, does not necessarily correlate with intelligence. Braininess instead relies more on neuronal connections, which we help forge when learning by experience or study.
Historically, women's IQs have lagged behind those of men by up to 5 points, but now women are surpassing men in such tests. Rex Jung, an assistant professor of neurosurgery at the University of New Mexico, has found that men tend to have more brain grey matter while women have more white matter. The differences yet again are evident, but it appears that the evolutionary battle between the sexes can, at least for now, be judged as a tie.
Women usually live longer than men
Better immunity, reduced risk for blood diseases and lower risk-taking may give women an edge on longevity. Based on Centers for Disease Control data, women tend to have a life expectancy that’s 5.3 years greater than men's, but the gap is narrowing. In 1978, it was 7.8 years. The good news for men is that they tend to remain sexually active longer than women do. "Interest in sex, participation in sex and even the quality of sexual activity were higher for men than women, and this gender gap widened with age," said Stacy Tessler Lindau of the University of Chicago, who worked on a related study.
While sifting through a 19th-century trash heap buried below Manhattan's City Hall Park, archaeologists found a dirt-caked tube that was finely carved out of bone and had a perforated, threaded screw cap. Only recently did they discover it was actually a vaginal syringe used for douching.
The feminine hygiene device seems to have been tossed out with the refuse of a pretty good party around the time City Hall was being built 200 years ago. Archaeologists say the syringe was unearthed among alcohol bottles, smoking pipes, fine pottery and the bones of sheep, cows, fish and even turtles — then a delicacy — that were likely served for dinner.
"We think the trash deposit feature was from a single event, possibly a celebratory event," said Alyssa Loorya, who heads the Brooklyn-based Chrysalis Archaeological Consultants. She explained the pile didn't have the characteristic layers that would build up over time in a continuously used dump. [The 10 Coolest Archaeology Discoveries]
The garbage pile was uncovered during excavations in 2010 as part of a project to rehabilitate City Hall, Loorya told Live Science. But the syringe wasn't identified until Chrysalis archaeologist Lisa Geiger, who is a graduate student at Hunter College, made the connection while she was volunteering as a guide at Philadelphia's Mutter Museum.
The museum houses all sorts of medical oddities, and while looking through the back collections, Geiger said she came across vaginal syringes that were the same size and shape as the object found at City Hall.
The device would have been used to irrigate the vagina with different solutions and tonics to treat venereal disease, prevent pregnancy and maintain good hygiene. (Douching is generally discouraged today as research has shown the practice can disturb the natural bacterial ecosystem of the vagina.)
These syringes weren't uncommon, but discussing feminine hygiene openly at the time was taboo. To research 19th-century douching, Geiger turned to historical ads and instructional booklets, which were becoming more prevalent as consumer trade grew and women took charge of family health care.
"There are these advertisements that kind of use creative language to dance around the use of these things," Geiger told Live Science. "It's not written about so overtly in the record, so the physical object in this case gave us an avenue to look at how women conceived of themselves and how they conceived of their hygiene."
Geiger, who presented her research at the meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology in Quebec City last month, hasn't found any other syringes made from bone. This device is also notable for its careful construction and skilled craftsmanship, she said.
As for that wild City Hall party? The archaeologists have not linked the garbage to a specific affair, but the trash heap dates back to the period between 1803 and 1815, which leaves some tantalizing possibilities. Historical records indicate there was a big dinner with abundant food and drink when the cornerstone for City Hall was laid, Loorya said, and another big event when the building was ready to be opened in 1812.
Original article on Live Science.
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